A 62 year old female with no past medical history presented to the ED with fevers, generalized weakness, severe muscle aches, and a rash. She had returned home from the Philippines 3 days prior to evaluation. Twenty-four hours prior to arrival, the patient noticed a rash on her shins. She denied any nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, sore throat, dysuria, urinary frequency, headache, and neck pain. The patient was in the Philippines for a family funeral and was indoors for most of the trip. She was unsure if she was stung by any bugs or mosquitos.
Welcome to the AIR Infectious Disease Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts from the top 50 sites of the Social Media Index, the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality online content related to infectious disease emergencies. 9 blog posts within the past 12 months (as of September 2019) met our standard of online excellence and were curated and approved for residency training by the AIR Series Board. We identified 1 AIR and 8 Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 4.5 hours (about 30 minutes per article) of III credit for this module.
A 25 year old male with a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after an allogeneic stem cell transplant, which has been in remission for 6 years. He presents with a headache and rash. 4 days ago the patient noticed a rash on the abdomen that was itchy, but not painful. Today, he noticed a similar rash on his face.
The headache started yesterday, waking him up from sleep. It is now slowly getting worse. He endorses chills, nausea, neck stiffness, neck pain, myalgias, and photophobia. He denies fevers, vomiting and phonophobia. He does have small headaches regularly but this headache is one of the most painful of his life. He does not take any immunosuppressants or medications.
Did you get your flu shot? We hope so. Influenza season is upon us again and it is always helpful to review the latest 2018 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) update on the diagnosis and treatment of influenza.1 Notable is that influenza-confirmed patients who present within 2 days of symptoms who are deemed low risk do not automatically warrant antiviral treatment. The subsequent question then is who is high risk? The following infographic by our Guidelines Editor, Dr. Kelly Wong, summarizes the key take-home points for emergency medicine clinicians.(more…)
The child with a fever and rash in your Emergency Department (ED) may actually have measles. This year, there have been 1,182 cases of measles in the U.S., and counting. This is the highest rate in the past 27 years . Globally, measles kills over a hundred thousand children . In the U.S., one child dies for about every 1,000 cases . Emergency providers must be able to quickly detect short-term complications that can lead to death and distinguish measles from mimics like Kawasaki Disease. It’s no coincidence that this year’s outbreak is in the setting of lower vaccination rates. The CDC now has new vaccine recommendations, and it’s imperative that ED providers join forces with public health providers to prevent future measles cases and deaths (photo credit).(more…)
A 31 year old African-American male, with a history of HIV, non-compliant with medications, presents with 3 months of painful “balls and bumps” on his left thigh. He was evaluated at another hospital prior to this visit and was discharged with 7 days of TMP-SMX. He denies any fever, chills, weight loss, night sweats, or anorexia.
Chief complaint: Left-sided facial swelling
History of Present Illness: A 2-year-old male presents to the emergency department in January after waking up with left-sided facial swelling. Mother states her son has had cough and congestion for the past 4 days for which she has been giving Tylenol and a children’s cough medication. The patient went to bed, awoke the following morning with facial swelling, and was brought to the emergency department.
He has no allergies, history of trauma to the area, or bug bites. The patient is fully vaccinated including the influenza vaccine.