About Javier Benitez, MD

ALiEM Featured Contributor

Take the quiz: Do you know your antihypertensive agents?

Identify the antihypertensive agent:

1. Rapid acting systemic and coronary artery vasodilator with minimal effects on cardiac conductivity or inotropy. Well studied in pregnancy. Caution in patients with left ventricular failure, liver cirrhosis

Answer: Nicardipine

2. Predominantly dilates the venous system. Useful in patients with cardiac ischemia, pulmonary edema, or congestive heart failure. Caution in patients with right ventricular failure

Answer: Nitroglycerin

3. Drug of choice in eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, and aortic dissection. Contraindicated in patients with congestive heart failure and heart block  

Answer: Labetalol

4. Decreases peripheral vascular resistance and increases collateral coronary blood flow in an uncontrolled and unpredictable manner and may result in serious complications. Drug of choice during pregnancy

Answer: Nifedipine

5. Direct arterial vasodilator that increases cardiac output and heart rate (Reflex response). Patient may develop lupus like syndrome. Not to be used as first line in the ED

Answer: Hydralyzine

6. Arterial vasodilator that delays atrioventricular conduction and has a negative inotropic effect 

Answer: Verapamil

7. Rapid onset of effect after oral administration (30 mins) with little change in cardiac output or reflex tachycardia. Adverse effect may include cough, angioedema. Toxic during first trimester.

Answer: Captopril

8. Only for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not to be given IV only PO or NG tube  

Answer: Nimodipine

9. The only parenteral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. May cause azotemia in older patients after MI

Answer: Enalapril

10. Oral or transdermal decreases peripheral vascular resistance. May cause sedation and bradycardia  

Answer: Clonidine

11. Used in patients who are volume overloaded but not in patients who are hypertensive and volume depleted 

Answer: Diuretics

12. Drug of choice  for pheochromocytoma, MAOI crisis, and cocaine overdose  

Answer: Phentolamine

1. Richard S. Irwin, James M. Rippe. Manual of Intensive Care Medicine; 4th ed
2. Marx: Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 7th ed (Chapter 82- Hypertension: Richard O. Gray)



By |2016-11-11T11:52:01-08:00Nov 14, 2012|Cardiovascular|

The mystique of direct laryngoscopy: Learning and teaching the procedure

This post is about an editorial comment by Dr. Richard Levitan on an article (1) about pulmonary critical care doctors performing intubations in the ICU (2). The study states that pulmonary critical care doctors can successfully perform this procedure. Dr. Levitan reports that intubation in elective anesthesia has a success rate between 98-99%, but when failure occurs the consequence can be catastrophic. The initial success rate of beginners is usually 50%, and it takes about 50 attempts in elective intubations to be 90% proficient.

By |2016-11-11T18:43:16-08:00Nov 11, 2012|Medical Education|

Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy

Have you heard of Bloom’s Taxonomy?

As active adult learners, we must be conscientious about the what, how, and why we are reading a piece of literature. Being conscientious makes us more efficient, selective, and critical about what we learn. This in turn will help us to provide better care for our patients, which is after all our main goal.

Although mainly used to develop curricula, I believe that understanding Bloom’s taxonomy and applying it to our learning may help us to learn more effectively. Bloom’s taxonomy can help us identify learning objectives that require higher level of cognitive function, which helps us to be better problem solvers.


By |2019-02-19T18:05:08-08:00Oct 21, 2012|Medical Education|

Creating a personal learning environment


What is digital curation?

It is the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection and archiving of digital assets.1 Once you have curated the digital content you might want to share with others. There are different ways of sharing this content:

  • Sending out the link
  • Retweeting on Twitter
  • “Like” on Facebook
  • “1+” on Google+
  • Many others


By |2018-01-30T02:02:44-08:00Sep 20, 2012|Medical Education|

Mini-guide to Twitter: Why should I join?

What is Twitter? 

It’s a social network where people can send messages of a maximum of 140 characters in real time. It was created in 2006, and it has grown tremendously ever since. When it was first created the messages, called tweets, were about what people were doing in real time. Nowadays people, or “tweeple” as they are called on Twitter, are tweeting about any subject in the world.

Here’s is detailed guide on how to use Twitter by Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Slide 35 is a 7:47 minute video where Dr. Chretien, an internist, is interviewed about the use of social media.  


By |2017-03-05T14:18:35-08:00Sep 13, 2012|Social Media & Tech|