Many of you are asked to take a leadership role in leading a team, whether it’s for research, administration, or even clinical. It is easy to feel unprepared for these roles, and there are many pitfalls waiting to sabotage your team’s productivity. The ALiEM Faculty Incubator has created a series of 10 case-based teaming problems to provide you with evidence-based advice and solutions for tackling some of the more common problems encountered in our professional team experiences.

Team collaboration is a critical element of academic medicine. Unfortunately, hectic schedules and geographic distance often interfere with a group’s ability to come together. This is particularly true in emergency medicine, a specialty in which members have highly variable clinical schedules. Digital collaboration is an excellent solution for optimizing communication among team members distributed over time and/or distance,1 but it has a unique set of challenges, specifically related to communication and team relationship building. Addressing these specific challenges will enhance team members effectiveness and engagement.

Meet Face To Face

Regardless of plans for future virtual collaboration, any team project should start with a face-to-face (FTF) meeting. The opportunity for teammates to gather in person, especially early in a team’s life, allows the team leader to define goals and expectations, set timelines, assign roles, define rules for communication. Perhaps most importantly, FTF meetings provide time for team members to establish personal relationships and develop team camaraderie.2

Effective virtual collaboration requires teams to develop a shared mental model (SMM) founded in shared knowledge among team members and an understanding of how an individual’s work contributes to the group’s overall mission. A team’s ability to develop a robust SMM is even more valuable for virtual teams compared to co-located teams.3 To create an effective SMM, leaders must foster a common identity and a common understanding of the goals of the team and the roles of its members. Face-to-face meetings are key to meeting these objectives.

Set Communication Ground Rules

Virtual teams result in more electronic communication via email and messaging services. There are a number of tools available for this purpose, many of which offer the benefit of archiving conversations for shared reference. Pitfalls in virtual communication often result from misinterpretation and incomplete knowledge transfer.2,4 A significant amount of communication occurs via non-verbal cues, which may not be available in many forms of digital communication. However, a formal communication charter can define appropriate standards across the group and limit misinterpretation.4

While email may be appropriate for gathering information, instances that require more complex communication, like problem solving or brainstorming should employ FTF or video conferencing to allow for more nuanced communication.2 Given that virtual collaboration rarely offers the opportunity for immediate clarification, individual communications should be comprehensive, including all necessary information for other team members to make informed decisions.

Schedule Regular Meetings

Creating supportive relationships is critical for maintaining success5 but is often challenging for virtual groups as geography limits opportunities for socializing. While the initial FTF meeting is a good first step to overcoming this hurdle, teams should also generate a schedule for regular, frequent video conferences. Some sources recommend that these calls occur at least once a month on a regular schedule, and that calls begin with unstructured time to allow discussion among team members, creating a “virtual water cooler” to nurture team dynamics and strengthen culture.5–7

Case Conclusion

With an upcoming national meeting, the group decides to grab coffee one afternoon. This allows the team to establish relationships, brainstorm, and get everyone on the same page. The team leader is able to get a verbal commitment from the group on a date for a video conference. During this subsequent meeting, the team leader works to develop a shared mental model, define a communication plan and platform, and follow-up with advanced scheduling of future meetings. Team members can now proactively protect their time and ensure availability for future meetings.

 

References

1.
Collaborating Online Is Sometimes Better than Face-to-Face. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2015/04/collaborating-online-is-sometimes-better-than-face-to-face. Published April 1, 2015. Accessed September 12, 2018.
2.
Hertel G, Geister S, Konradt U. Managing virtual teams: A review of current empirical research. Human Resource Management Review. 2005;15(1):69-95. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2005.01.002
3.
Beranek PM, Broder J, Reinig BA, Romano Jr. NC, Sump S. Management of Virtual Project Teams: Guidelines for Team Leaders. Communications of the Association of Information Systems. 2015;16:247-259.
4.
Managing a Virtual Team. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2012/04/how-to-manage-a-virtual-team. Published April 16, 2012. Accessed September 12, 2018.
5.
Lurey JS, Raisinghani MS. An empirical study of best practices in virtual teams. Information & Management. 2001;38(8):523-544. doi:10.1016/s0378-7206(01)00074-x
6.
Making Virtual Teams Work: Ten Basic Principles. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2013/06/making-virtual-teams-work-ten. Published June 27, 2013. Accessed September 12, 2018.
7.
The Secrets of Great Teamwork. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/06/the-secrets-of-great-teamwork. Published June 1, 2016. Accessed September 12, 2018.
W. Gannon Sungar DO

W. Gannon Sungar DO

Staff Physician
Denver Health Medical Center Assistant Professor
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Colorado School of Medicine
W. Gannon Sungar DO

@gannonsungar

EM Physician, Educator, APD @DenverEMed
Melissa Parsons, MD

Melissa Parsons, MD

Assistant Professor, Assistant Program Director
Department of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Residency
University of Florida – Jacksonville
Melissa Parsons, MD

@MEParsonsMD

EM Physician. @sheMDtweets Editor-In-Chief @BoldCityEM Assistant Residency Director #sheMD #StrongWomenEmpowerWomen #UFJaxEM #WomeninMedicine
Melissa Parsons, MD

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Dallas Holladay, DO

Dallas Holladay, DO

Assistant Professor and Clerkship Director
Department of Emergency Medicine
Rush University
Dallas Holladay, DO

@Dallas_Holladay

Come for the medical education, stay for the cat memes.