There are only 1,440 minutes in a day. As physicians, how can we best make use of every one of them.

The 1440 Doctor: How to Unplug While Working From Home

unplug from work working from home WFH

When we are scheduled for a clinical shift, we are well aware of our work hours for the day (and any added charting time afterwards). However on our academic days working from home (WFH) the separation between work and leisure time becomes more blurry. 

Harvard Business Review studies found that being on the road can help people switch gears between home and work (1). Blake Ashforth et al. in “All in a Day’s Work: Boundaries and Mirco Role Transitions” writes about the importance of the transition between work to non-work, including “boundary-crossing activities,” such as putting on work clothes and driving in your car (2). The paper emphasizes the importance of physical and social indicators that tell us something has changed. 

Given WFH is not going away anytime soon, let’s talk about strategies to set boundaries and aid in the transition between these 2 environments when the physical commute is gone.

hourglass stop working from home

Parkinson’s law describes how the amount of work expands to fill the time available for its completion. The principle should be etched at the top of every physician’s calendar. Most of us have experienced Parkinson’s law while writing a paper, preparing for a lecture, or just about anything else with a due date. Suddenly it’s the day before the deadline and instantly your effort increases as the time for completion decreases. 

There are 2 applications of Parkinson’s law that can aid us while WFH.

  1. Apply Parkinson’s law throughout your workday. Do our 1-hour standing meetings ever end early? Not likely. When we plan for more time than a task actually takes, we often take advantage of that time, even if it’s not productive. Challenge yourself to complete that 2-hour task in 1 hour. Use an aid to help you, like the BeFocused timer app, to set a hard stop to your task. It also instills a sense of urgency to watch the timer ticking down.

When you are planning your WFH day, don’t think about the time you HAVE to complete a task; think about how much time you will NEED

  1. Set a hard stop to your work day. These hard stops are not only important for each task at hand but also the end of the work day. At what time do you want to end your WFH day? Calendar the time. Use your BeFocused timer and with that final “beep” you are done with your workday. By having a hard stop to your day, you will increase your effort to work more efficiently because your work day will be ending at a certain time (regardless of how many emails are in your inbox). 

This is an area we must all practice self-compassion. When a day of hard work is done, it’s okay to stop. What this means is no emails when the kids go to bed, no late night work texts or Slack checks. You want some supporting data? Check out the article, Psychological Detachment From Work During Leisure Time: The Benefits of Mentally Disengaging From Work, by Sonnentag. Her research talks about psychological detachment, a state of being when you are mentally disengaged from work and you are not thinking about any job-related activities (like that patient from last night) or doing any job-related activities (yes, that means no email, Slack, charts). Sonnentag found that workers that practiced psychological detachment after work were more satisfied with their lives, experienced fewer symptoms of psychological strain, and had a better job performance (3).

laptop couch working from home

We know that commuting helps the transition between work and personal life. But this transition doesn’t need to be a physical one. An article, The Positive Utility of the Commute: Modeling Ideal Commute Time and Relative Desired Commute Amount, from the journal Transportation reported that the most optimal commute length is 16 minutes (4). The happiest commuters use this time to plan their workdays on their way to work (5). 

So on your next WFH day, block off 15 minutes at the start of your day and 15 minutes at the end of your day and plan your own WFH commute. Use this time for what has been shown to lead to happiness. For instance, my morning WFH commute consists of 15 minutes reviewing my day. I look through my Omnifocus (protip: check out this amazing time management software app) and calendar to get a sense of what the day entails. I usually also try to fit in a short meditation, which is known to reduce stress, increase your attention span, and improve sleep (evidence behind the benefits of meditation).

For the last 15 minutes of my WFH day, I plan my evening. I go to my favorite website for pursuing local events, print out some activities I can do with my kids, and reconfirm how I want my evening to look. I plan every minute because I’ve learned if I don’t plan, I am more likely to just sit around the house. Think also about scheduling that 6 pm work out or 9:30 pm appointment with a good book. 

Want to do something more active with your WFH commute? Consider using this time to call a friend while on a short 15 minute walk. Both connecting with others and walking have been shown to have a positive effect on your mood (6).

Creating a WFH ritual will help distance you from your workday.

feierabend work from home

Feierabend (Feier=celebration + abend = evening) is an evening celebration that German’s partake in that marks the moment when your work day has ended. Many Germans celebrate with a German beer, but I want you to think about what you’d like to reward yourself with at the end of a hard-worked day. Is it calling family/friends, a run, a dance party with your kids, your own favorite beverage? Make your own ritual, it will help you celebrate what you have accomplished during the day (instead of focusing on what needs to be done).

Summary Action items

  1. Set limits on the amount of time you spend on a task, and consider using the BeFocused timer. The last “beep” of the timer signals the end of the workday. Hard stop.
  2. Plan out your ideal 15-minute virtual commute to start and end of your work day. Doing so will help you transition mentally between roles.
  3. Celebrate the work you do every day. Get in the habit of being intentional about celebrating something every evening at the end of your work day, even if it’s something small (like a boba tea). Schönen Feierabend!

 

References

  1. Jachimowicz J, Lee J, Staats BR, Menges J, Gino F. Between Home and Work: Commuting as an Opportunity for Role Transitions. Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 16-077, Columbia Business School Research Paper No. 16-7. 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2714478
  2. Ashforth BE, Kreiner GE, Fugate M. All in a Day’s Work: Boundaries and Micro Role Transitions. The Academy of Management Review. 2000; 25(3), 472–491. https://journals.aom.org/doi/10.5465/amr.2000.3363315
  3. Sonnentag S. Psychological Detachment From Work During Leisure Time: The Benefits of Mentally Disengaging From Work. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2012; 21(2), 114–118. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23213103
  4. Redmond LS, Mokhtarian PL. The positive utility of the commute: modeling ideal commute time and relative desired commute amount. Transportation. 2001; 28, 179–205. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010366321778
  5. Jachimowicz J, Lee J, Staats B, Gino F, Menges J. Between home and work: commuting as an opportunity for role transitions. Organization Science. 2021; 32 (1), 64-85. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2020.1370
  6. Miller JC, Krizan Z. Walking facilitates positive affect (even when expecting the opposite). Emotion. 2016 Aug;16(5):775-85. doi: 10.1037/a0040270. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PMID: 27100368.

 

 

As physicians we are managing many different roles in our lives: academician, researcher, clinical provider, spouse, parent, just to name a few. Despite our many roles, the amount of time we have in a day to complete the tasks of each role remains the same: 1,440 minutes. Is how you’re spending your 1,440 minutes in a day the way you want to spend them? By assessing your priorities, practicing time saving tips and being proactive and not reactive you can live the balanced life you’ve dreamt of. There are only 1440 minutes in a day. Are you utilizing them well?

The 1440 Doctor series, originally launched on the Medutopia site, is authored by efficiency guru, Dr. Jennifer Kanapicki.

 

By |2022-01-25T11:50:35-08:00Jan 19, 2022|1440 Doctor, Life|

The 1440 Doctor: 3 Tips for Combating Distractions while Working From Home

We have all been there. You sit down to write your next masterpiece that you know any journal would be lucky to accept and “ding” your phone goes off. You check it, you type a few words on the google document, you hear some yelling in the other room (A kid? Your neighbor’s kid?). You try to focus and tell yourself not to worry about it. You need to get this section of the paper written today. The doorbell rings, you hop up to see what it is. Amazon has arrived.

Sound familiar? Our brains are hardwired for distraction. Back in the day, this was a good thing when the saber-tooth tiger was attacking us. Nowadays, it’s just taking your attention away from writing your next paper, finishing your charts, or concentrating on what is meaningful and productive. 

The case for banning distractions

You probably know distractions are bad for you. But as a data-driven cohort let’s talk about some numbers. A study out of Michigan State University found that an interruption 2.8 seconds long doubled the rate of errors in the task being performed. Not so great for ED physicians. The Harvard Business Review reported a study out of the University of California Irvine which showed that once interrupted it takes 23 minutes and 15 seconds to refocus back to the original task after an interruption (1). So that quick phone check is costing you more minutes than you think.

How do we stay focused while working from home?

Cal Newport defines “Deep Work” as “the ability to focus without distraction on a cognitively demanding task.” Doesn’t that sound nice? I’m going to give you 3 tips so that you can master deep work the next time you work from home (WFH).

distractions pause working from home WFH

We perform “time outs” in the Emergency Department to set ourselves up for success and improve the quality of our work, so why not have the same philosophy while WFH? Plan a “time out” that you will perform every time you WFH (or WFA, Work From Anywhere, for that matter). Ritualizing it, doing the same routine every day, can improve your performance (2). 

Step 1: Clear your physical environment from distractions

As we talked about in the WFH strategies post, our brains like order. My first step when I sit down to WFH is to clear my desk of anything that would lure my brain to start thinking about something other than the task at hand. Mail, paperwork, and old coffee cups all get the boot before I sit down to do deep work.

And yes, that definitely means clearing your environment of your smartphone too. Ward et al, published an article talking about the “brain drain” of a smartphone (3). The study found that working memory and fluid intelligence were both affected when a participant’s smartphone was in their visual field (it didn’t even have to be doing anything!). Out of sight (e.g., desk drawer) even had a negative effect, although not as much. If you want to retain your cognitive capacity for all that deep work you’re doing, the best place for your phone is in another room. If you think it’s heresy to have your phone that far from you, then at least put your phone out of your visual field and set it to Do Not Disturb (DND). If you are worried you are going to miss an emergency call, use the Emergency Bypass function to allow your emergency contacts to still be able to call or text.

Step 2: Declutter your digital space before starting your day

My computer lives in Do Not Disturb (DND) mode for 23 hours and 59 minutes a day. It gets one minute not in DND at 1:59 am. No banners, dings, pop-ups. As mentioned in the WFH strategies post, start your day with no icons on your desktop and only one window open for what you are currently working on. Your brain is easily nagged by things left undone or unexplored. Don’t give it options.

Step 3: Pause

Consider doing a 2-minute meditation before you start your WFH. Meditation has been shown in studies to improve your working memory, reduce mind wandering (3) and relieve stress-related memory impairments. My go-to apps are Insight timer (free!) and Headspace.

squirrel distractions

I have invested in a number of distraction busters that keep me focused while WFH. The first one I recommend is a white noise sound machine. I turn on my sound machine and I am naive to all screaming littles, construction, and traffic noises. Some studies show white noise can improve cognitive performance (5), being most favorable to those with lower attention spans (hello EMers!).

Also, consider investing in noise-canceling headphones. These have 2 purposes. First, they block out ambient noise (great if you are WFA and not home with your sound machine). Secondly, they have the bonus of creating a social cost for interrupting you. When people see headphones, they are less tempted to interrupt you since there is a subtle social barrier in their way (try it next time you have to work from the office if you are unable to shut your door).

One of my favorite distraction busters is the Be Focused Focus Timer. This iPhone app utilizes the Pomodoro technique, a nifty time management system that encourages people to work in 25 minutes blocks with 5 minute breaks. This timer sits on the top bar of my screen and counts down every second. Rather than feeling like I have endless time for a task, I know I only have 22 minutes and 24 seconds, for example, to write this section of my blog post. This sense of urgency helps me not to get sucked into distractions.

working from home distractions map plan

Probably one of my favorite time management quotes comes from Nir Eyal’s book Indistractable. He says “you can’t call something a distraction unless you know what it’s distracting you from.” I remember reading this quote and having one of those “a-ha” moments. We so often blame something, usually a technological device, for distracting us but if we haven’t planned our day, therefore our day having no traction, how can we call something a distraction?

Cal Newport, author of “Deep Work,” actually has a section in his book called “Schedule Every Minute of Your Day.” He suggests at the beginning of each workday, write down your schedule for the day with every minute accounted for. He time blocks his day, with each block being 30 minutes. He goes on to add that it’s okay if your schedule is disrupted and a task takes longer than expected. He recommends during the next transition to revise your day plan. Consider giving that task more time in the future or making “overflow conditional” blocks that are “catch up” time. This exercise encourages you to continually ask yourself “What makes sense for me to do with the time that remains?” What is my next most important task?

Action items

  1. Each time you sit down to work, be it WFH, WFA, or even your office, perform a “time out” ritual. Make it your own. Set yourself up for focused and productive work. Clear your physical environment of distractions, disconnect from all technology, and pause.
  2. Think about what distraction busters will set you up for success while WFH. Invest in a white noise sound machine or noise-canceling headphones. Close your door, let your family/housemates know you are doing deep work. Create a social barrier to interrupting your focus.
  3. Schedule every minute of your day. Write it down somewhere. I like using OmniFocus Task Management App. Make sure to have traction in your day-to-day life.

References

  1. Mark G, Gudith D, Klocke U. The cost of interrupted work: More speed and stress. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – Proceedings. 2008; 107-110. https://doi.org/10.1145/1357054.1357072
  2. Wood Brooks A, Schroeder J. et al. Don’t stop believing: Rituals improve performance by decreasing anxiety, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Volume 137, 2016, Pages 71-85, ISSN 0749-5978, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2016.07.004.
  3. Ward AF, Duke K, Gneezy A, Bos MW. Brain Drain: The mere presence of one’s smartphone reduces cognitive capacity. Journal of the Association of Consumer Research, 2017; 2(2), 140-154. https://doi.org/10.1086/691462
  4. Mrazek MD, Franklin MS, Phillips DT, et al. Mindfulness Training Improves Working Memory Capacity and GRE Performance While Reducing Mind Wandering. Psychological Science. 2013; 24(5), 776–781. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23409426
  5. Angwin AJ, Wilson WJ, Arnott WL, et al. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults. Sci Rep 7, 2017; 13045. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13383-3

As physicians we are managing many different roles in our lives: academician, researcher, clinical provider, spouse, parent, just to name a few. Despite our many roles, the amount of time we have in a day to complete the tasks of each role remains the same: 1,440 minutes. Is how you’re spending your 1,440 minutes in a day the way you want to spend them? By assessing your priorities, practicing time saving tips and being proactive and not reactive you can live the balanced life you’ve dreamt of. There are only 1440 minutes in a day. Are you utilizing them well?

The 1440 Doctor series, originally launched on the Medutopia site, is authored by efficiency guru, Dr. Jennifer Kanapicki.

By |2021-10-06T09:44:20-07:00Oct 22, 2021|1440 Doctor, Academic, Life|

The 1440 Doctor: Working From Home (WFH) | 3 Strategies for Being Productive

Physicians have practiced medicine in a variety of practice settings in the past. Some in rural environments, others in austere conditions on a mountain top in Nepal. The recent pandemic has created even a new practice environment in the field of medicine: our own homes. The idea of working from home (WFH) is not a new concept. It’s been gaining momentum for several decades in other fields but healthcare has been slow to embrace this trend. COVID19 changed that.

There are many benefits of this new practice environment (basically a 0-minute commute, being able to see family/furry friends during the day), but it also has its struggles. This 3-part series is going to tackle the top obstacles of WFH and give you the tools to combat them.

A company called Buffer surveyed 2,300 remote workers and charted their top struggles when working from home. Coming in at #1 was not being able to unplug. Difficulties with collaboration, loneliness, and distractions basically tied for the #2 spot. A study from YouGov mentioned similar challenges and included the struggle to find a proper workspace. So let’s talk about some solutions. This post will focus on setting up your new practice environment to optimize your productivity and increase your focus.

working from home WFH efficiency

Tip 1: Declutter your physical space

What does your WFH workspace look like? Is it pristine or is it filled with old papers, coffee mugs, and clutter? A 2011 study by Princeton University showed us that our brains like order. The study found that a cluttered, disorganized environment impairs your ability to focus and restricts your capacity to process information [1]. The Harvard Business Review discusses the negative effect clutter can have on your stress and anxiety levels. Don’t let your focus be thwarted by old coffee mugs, make sure to set yourself up for success, and at the end of each day clear your desk of any items that aren’t helping you to focus on the task at hand.

WFH clean desk

Tip 2: Declutter your digital space

Many productivity books like Digital Minimalism and Indistractable emphasize that it’s not only your physical space that needs to be free of clutter but your digital one. Think about your last Zoom meeting, was Zoom the only window you had open? Likely not. Each window we have open, each tab on your internet browser, is nagging your brain of things left undone or unexplored. Our brains like to solve problems so these are tasty distractions for it. 

Now let’s take a look at your desktop. How many icons are tempting your brain? Get rid of them. This digital clutter is distracting your brain and causing it to continuously task-switch, which slows your thinking and decreases your productivity. Free your mind to concentrate on what’s important. If you decide to attend a meeting, conference, or any digital event, make sure to be present in both virtual body and mind. Otherwise don’t go.

WFH plant on desk

Tip 3: Put items in your workspace that have been shown to be beneficial

Once we have cleared our physical and digital space of clutter now it’s time to make sure it has the items that we know help us focus. Let’s look at the data. There are obvious aspects of our work environment that increase productivity like natural light or a nice view. If you can find a workspace with any view of nature, this has the ability to reduce your blood pressure and circulation of stress hormones as well as increase your capacity to focus. Get a green plant. Not only can a green plant increase your productivity by 15% [2], but they have also been shown to reduce stress [3] and boost cognition by 26%.

These environmental modifiers sound wonderful, but you might not always have the option of remote working with a gorgeous view. Or do you? Who says it needs to be an “H” in WFH? Make the “H” an “A” for anywhere. Nowadays, you can work from anywhere (WFA) with a hotspot. Is there a place you can go to be closer with family and work from there for a couple of weeks? Maybe rent a VRBO or Airbnb and spend the week working from Tahoe or Cape Cod. You don’t need to travel either. Go to your local park, get out your hotspot, and get to work.

Make some lemonade out of the COVID lemons.

Action items:

  • At the end of each workday, clear your workspace of any clutter. This will allow you to start your next WFH day fresh and increase your ability to focus.
  • Make it a point to have only 1 window on your computer open at a time. Set a goal for no icons on your desktop. Allow your brain to work on one thing at a time (that’s what it’s good at), which is going to make you more productive.
  • Optimize your workspace. Try to set up a space with natural light, a view of nature, and a green plant. If this isn’t possible, switch it up, find a place with a hotspot and WFA.

References:

  1. McMains S, Kastner S. Interactions of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms in human visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2011 Jan 12;31(2):587-97. PMID: 21228167
  2. University of Exeter. “Why plants in the office make us more productive.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 September 2014.
  3. ​​Dijkstra K, Pieterse ME, Pruyn A. Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: the mediating role of perceived attractiveness. Prev Med. 2008 Sep;47(3):279-83. Epub 2008 Jan 26. PMID: 18329704.

As physicians we are managing many different roles in our lives: academician, researcher, clinical provider, spouse, parent, just to name a few. Despite our many roles, the amount of time we have in a day to complete the tasks of each role remains the same: 1,440 minutes. Is how you’re spending your 1,440 minutes in a day the way you want to spend them? By assessing your priorities, practicing time saving tips and being proactive and not reactive you can live the balanced life you’ve dreamt of. There are only 1440 minutes in a day. Are you utilizing them well?

The 1440 Doctor series, originally launched on the Medutopia site, is authored by efficiency guru, Dr. Jennifer Kanapicki.

By |2021-08-31T22:49:02-07:00Sep 8, 2021|1440 Doctor|
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