As medical education podcasts, videos, and blogs continue to grow in popularity it is crucial that we cite them correctly in traditional publications, specifically journal articles and textbook chapters. In a previous blog post, I described a format for citing these works on a CV. The American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style is in its 10th edition, with the last update being published in 2007,1 largely before the tidal wave of “nontraditional” publications. Based on the AMA Manual of Style, how should we reference these digital publications?
The Manual of Style notes that “as much relevant information as possible should be included.” Information may be missing, but it makes sense to include everything possible.
Web-Based Audio Publications (Podcasts)
AMA does not specifically describe a way to cite audio podcasts, with the closest options being an “audiotape” or an “online conference presentation.” Hopefully this will be updated in the next edition (and maybe they will also abandon obsolete references such as “books on CD-ROM”). The citation for online conference presentation offers more information than the audiotape option, and is therefore, my recommendation for citing a podcast. Here is how to write the citation:
Last Name First Initial. Title of Episode. Title of Podcast. Date of Publication. URL. Accessed [date].
- Mason J, Bavolek R. Placenta Previa. Emergency Medicine Reviews and Perspectives. October 1, 2018. https://www.emrap.org/episode/emrap20181/placentaprevia. Accessed November 21, 2018.
The AMA Manual of Style also does not have a specific way to cite online video publications. The citation guide for videotapes sounds like a good fit, but this assumes the video is published by a production company and includes the production company name and location in the citation. This is largely irrelevant to many videos being produced for medical education. Instead, I am recommending we use the same format as above for an “online conference presentation,” which provides more pertinent information. All known information should be included. Here is how to write the citation:
Last Name First Initial. Title of Video. Video Producer. Date of Publication. URL. Accessed [date].
- Mason J. Placing a Transvenous Pacemaker. Emergency Medicine Reviews and Perspectives. October 1, 2018. https://www.emrap.org/episode/transvenous/transvenous. Accessed November 21, 2018.
- Mason J. Placing a Transvenous Pacemaker. EM:RAP Productions. October 11, 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00-T8PcbStE. Accessed November 21, 2018.
Blogs should be cited as websites until the AMA updates their Manual of Style. The following citation format can be used:
Last Name First Initial. Title of Blog Post. Name of Blog. URL. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].
- Riveros T, Kim J, Dyer S. Trick of the Trade: Fishhook Removal Techniques. Academic Life in Emergency Medicine. https://www.aliem.com/2018/01/trick-fishhook-removal-techniques/. Published January 8, 2018. Accessed November 21, 2018.