The typical adult oral cavity contains 32 teeth split into 4 sections, with each quadrant containing 2 incisors, 1 canine, 1 premolars, and 3 molars. The universal numbering system labels dentition with numbers from 1 through 32 starting with the right maxillary third molar. When assessing the oral cavity for avulsed or damaged dentition, it is essential to note some individuals may have congenitally missing teeth or may have had dentition extracted in the past due to various reasons. Premolars can be found anterior to the molars, and they are smaller in width.
Whereas adults have 32 teeth, pediatric patients have 20 primary teeth, labeled A through T. Pre-adolescents have mixed dentition, consisting of both deciduous (“baby” or “primary”) dentition and succedaneous (“permanent”) dentition. Most pediatric patients will have lost all of their primary teeth by 12 years of age.
Each tooth follows the same overall anatomical structure, as seen in the diagram below. However, the shape, number of roots, function, and other attributes vary from tooth to tooth. When referencing dentition, coronal is the portion of the tooth towards the crown. On the other hand, apical (as in apex) is the portion of the tooth towards the root.