PV Card: Electrolytes and ECG changes

ECG anatomy segments

The electrocardiogram can pick up all sorts of electrolyte abnormalities. The most common abnormalities revolve around high and low levels of potassium and calcium. Magnesium derangements typically have nonspecific findings. How do you keep things straight? To make things more complicated, multiple electrolyte derangements can occur at the same time, making ECG interpretation challenging.


By |2021-10-08T09:38:57-07:00Sep 21, 2012|ALiEM Cards, ECG, Endocrine-Metabolic|

Paucis Verbis: aVR Lead on ECG

ECG leads aVR lead

What lead is the most overlooked on the ECG?

 Answer: aVR Lead

This lead can provide some unique insight into 5 different conditions:

  1. Acute MI
  2. Pericarditis
  3. Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and TCA-like overdose
  4. AVRT in narrow complex tachycardias
  5. Differentiating VT from SVT with aberrancy in wide complex tachycardias by using the Vereckei criteria (possibly better than Brugada criteria)

PV Card: The aVR Lead on ECG

Adapted from [1-4]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

See also:


  1. Williamson K, Mattu A, Plautz C, Binder A, Brady W. Electrocardiographic applications of lead aVR. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24(7):864-874. [PubMed]
  2. Vereckei A, Duray G, Szénási G, Altemose G, Miller J. New algorithm using only lead aVR for differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5(1):89-98. [PubMed]
  3. Kireyev D, Arkhipov M, Zador S, Paris J, Boden W. Clinical utility of aVR-The neglected electrocardiographic lead. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2010;15(2):175-180. [PubMed]
  4. Riera A, Ferreira C, Ferreira F, et al. Clinical value of lead aVR. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2011;16(3):295-302. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-11T15:47:33-07:00Nov 18, 2011|ALiEM Cards, Cardiovascular, ECG|

Paucis Verbis: Brugada syndrome

Brugada Syndrome

You always hear about it when working up syncope and sudden cardiac arrest in young patients, but it’s so easy to forget what it looks like on ECG. We so rarely see it… or DO we?!

This Paucis Verbis card on Brugada Syndrome is to help emblazon these ECG tracings in our mind, so that we don’t miss the subtle findings which place a patient at risk for sudden cardiac death. Pay special attention to Type 1, which is most specific for Brugada Syndrome.

PV Card: Brugada Syndrome

* Update 8/2/18: Only Type 1 and Type 2 are recognized for Brugada syndrome. The type 3 pattern is likely a normal variant.

Adapted from [1]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.


  1. Antzelevitch C. Brugada Syndrome: Report of the Second Consensus Conference: Endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation. 2005;111(5):659-670. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000152479.54298.51
By |2021-10-15T11:04:55-07:00May 6, 2011|ALiEM Cards, Cardiovascular, ECG|

Paucis Verbis: AMI and ECG Geography

Sometimes a picture is worth MORE than a 1000 words. Such is the case of the above illustration that I saw on the Life In The Fast Lane blog. When I first saw it, I knew that I immediately had to find out who made the graphic. It turns out it is the multitalented Dr. Tor Ercleve, who is an emergency physician at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and an established medical illustrator.

ECG anatomy illustration AMI

This graphic demonstrates the EKG findings for the various types of acute MI’s as broken down by coronary vascular anatomy (right coronary artery, left circumflex artery, left anterior descending artery). This detailed illustration won’t be readable in print form but is great in digital format on your mobile device.

Thanks, Tor!


Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.
By |2021-10-15T11:17:43-07:00Apr 8, 2011|ALiEM Cards, Cardiovascular, ECG|
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