sturge-weber

A 69-year-old Caucasian female with a past medical history of seizures, cerebral vascular accident, and Parkinson’s disease presents by EMS for evaluation of a 30-minute episode of left upper and lower extremity weakness and left facial drooping. The patient complains of a right-sided “migraine-type” headache similar to that experienced with her prior stroke.

Vitals: Temp 36.5°C; BP 186/74; P 74; RR 18; O2 Sat 95%

General: Alert; no acute distress

Skin: Warm; dry; dark red discoloration localized to the left side of face, neck, chest, and upper extremity

HEENT: Normocephalic; left-sided facial droop; pupils are equal round and reactive to light

Cardiovascular: Regular rate and rhythm; no murmurs or gallops

Neurological: Alert and oriented x 4; CN II-XII grossly intact; slow and sluggish speech with left-sided facial droop; motor strength 4/5 LUE and LLE; tremor consistent with Parkinson’s disease

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) and Complete Blood Count (CBC) are within normal limits.

Brain Computed Tomography demonstrates chronic atrophy, subcortical calcification, and microvascular ischemia.

Port-wine stain birthmark. This birthmark typically occurs on the forehead, scalp, or around the eye, and is unilateral. It is a manifestation of an overabundance of capillaries near the surface of the skin and exhibits a classic light pink to dark red discoloration.

When located around the eye, port wine stains have been associated with an increased incidence of glaucoma. Large port wine stains on the arm or leg have been associated with extra growth in that limb known as Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Port wine staining of the face, forehead, and scalp, when associated with cerebral leptomeningeal angiomas that elicit migraine headaches, seizures, strokes, and intellectual impairment as in this patient, are the classic findings of Sturge-Weber syndrome.

Take-Home Points

  • Sturge-Weber syndrome is the third most prevalent neurocutaneous disorder impacting 1 in 20,000 live births. It is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder that is caused by somatic activating mutations in the GNAQ gene.
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a facial port-wine stain, leptomeningeal angiomatosis, and glaucoma. Brain involvement can begin early in infancy, and manifests as seizures, strokes, stroke-like episodes, and a variety of neurological impairments.
  • Anticonvulsants, low-dose aspirin, and glaucoma medications are often employed in the management of Sturge-Weber syndrome as well as skin pulse dye laser therapy as desired for cosmesis. The prognosis of this condition depends on the extent of leptomeningeal involvement and the severity of glaucoma.

  • Comi AM. Sturge-Weber syndrome. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;132:157-68. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00011-1. PMID: 26564078.
  • Higueros E, Roe E, Granell E, Baselga E. Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A Review. ActasDermosifiliogr. 2017 Jun;108(5):407-417. English, Spanish. doi: 10.1016/j.ad.2016.09.022. Epub2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28126187.

Payal Patel

Payal Patel

Medical Student
University of South Alabama College of Medicine
Payal Patel

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Michael Sternberg, MD

Michael Sternberg, MD

Professor
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of South Alabama
Michael Sternberg, MD

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