SAEM Clinical Image Series: An Uncommon Cause of Shortness of Breath

shortness of breath

A 102-year-old female presents with intermittent epigastric abdominal pain for the last two days. Episodes have no relieving or exacerbating factors. The pain originates in the epigastrium and radiates diffusely to the abdomen and back, resolving on its own within minutes of onset. She has had one episode of nonbilious, non-bloody emesis. Her last bowel movement was two days prior and she hasn’t been able to pass gas. The pain is associated with mild shortness of breath which has been progressively worsening since the onset of symptoms. Her family was concerned and called EMS because the shortness of breath has worsened and the episodes of pain have been progressively worsening in intensity. The patient denies fever, chills, hematuria, urinary frequency, chest pain, headache, dizziness, syncope, recent traumatic events, and any other associated symptoms.

General: Well-appearing; no acute distress; awake, alert, and oriented to date, place, and person

Cardiovascular: Regular rate and rhythm; S1/S2 present; 2+ systolic ejection murmur; capillary refill <2 seconds; 2+ pulses in all extremities

Respiratory: Lungs clear to auscultation bilaterally with diminished breath sounds in the left lower lobe; no signs of respiratory distress; no accessory muscle use

Abdomen: Soft; non-tender; non distended; no palpable masses; no guarding or rebound tenderness; no signs of peritonitis

Extremities: Full range of motion of all extremities; nonambulatory at baseline

Complete blood count (CBC): WBC 10.8 x 10^3/mcl; Hgb 12 g/dl; Hct 40.1%; Plt 375 x 10^3/mcl

Basic metabolic panel (BMP): Na 139 mmol/L; K 3.7 mmol/L; Cl 97 mmol/L; CO2 31 mmol/L; Glucose 170 mg/dL; BUN 10 mg/dL; Cr 0.58 mg/dL; Ca 10.2 mmol/L

Liver function test: AST 19 U/L; ALT 7 U/L; Alk Phos 144 U/L

Lipase: 11 U/L

Venous blood gas (VBG): pH 7.33; pCO2 61.1 mmHg; pO2 38 mmHg; BE -7 mmol/L

Lactic acid: 1.56 mmol/L

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) secondary to a spigellian hernia with an associated hiatal hernia. 

The CT demonstrates a spigellian hernia causing a small bowel obstruction. Spigellian hernias are hernias in the spigellian fascia which is located between the semilunar line and the lateral edge of the rectus abdominus muscle. These hernias constitute 0.12% of abdominal wall hernias, making them very rare and difficult to diagnose clinically. Spigellian hernias often go unnoticed until they are strangulated and require surgery. This patient not only had a rare spigellian hernia but also had a hiatal hernia causing the stomach to enter the pleural space. It’s possible that the bowel obstruction worsened the hiatal hernia with the backup of gastric contents and gas.

Take-Home Points

  • Spigellian hernias are rare abdominal wall hernias with a myriad of potential complications.
  • Shortness of breath is frequently considered a pathology involving the lungs or pulmonary vasculature, however abdominal complaints, especially in this case, can cause significant respiratory distress.
  • Elderly patients may have difficulty verbalizing their exact symptoms, and it is good practice to gather collateral information from families to aid in caring for these patients.

  • Spangen L. Spigelian hernia. World J Surg. 1989 Sep-Oct;13(5):573-80. doi: 10.1007/BF01658873. PMID: 2683401.


Droperidol for Agitation in Older Adults in the Emergency Department

Droperidol is safe and effective for the treatment of severely agitated patients in the ED [1-3]. But what about its use for agitation in elderly patients specifically?

Droperidol Efficacy

Two Australian studies evaluated droperidol in more than 200 older adults (≥ 65 years old) in the prehospital and ED settings [4,5]. Both studies found droperidol to be effective in elderly patients with acute behavioral disturbances. The median time to sedation was ~20-30 minutes with doses ranging from 2.5-10 mg (Table 1). 

CharacteristicPage, et al (n=162)Calver, et al (n=47)
Median Age78 years81 years
Initial Droperidol IM Dose5 mg10 mg (n=30)
5 mg (n=15)
2.5 mg (n=2)
Median Time to Sedation19 mins10 mg: 30 mins
5 mg: 21 mins
2.5 mg: NA
Patients Sedated with ≤ 10 mg Droperidol144 (89%)34 (72%)

Table 1: Efficacy of droperidol in older adults

Droperidol Safety

Additionally, each study broke down each time a patient experienced an adverse event (Table 2). Overall, these adverse events were uncommon (4.5%), mild in nature, and resolved spontaneously or with minor interventions. No patients developed Torsades de Pointes. 

StudyAge/SexDroperidol DoseAdverse EventsManagementTime Post-Droperidol
Page, et al (n=162)76 yo Male5 mgSBP <90 (88/54)Spontaneous Resolution
87 yo Female10 mgSBP <90 (80/46)Spontaneous Resolution
79 yo Female5 mgSBP <90 (83/48)
O2 sat <90% (80%)
Supplemental Oxygen
500 mL IV Fluid
82 yo Male5 mgRR <12 (RR 10)Spontaneous Resolution
86 yo Male5 mgO2 sat <90% (88%)Supplemental Oxygen
Calver, et al (n=49)75 yo Male10 mgSBP <9030 mins
68 yo Female10 mgSBP <905 mins
73 yo Male10 mgAirway Obstruction100 mins
87 yo Female2.5 mgOversedation480 mins

Table 2: Safety of droperidol in older adults

Bottom Line

Taking the above points into account, droperidol appears to be both effective and safe in agitated adults ≥ 65 years of age for the treatment of agitation. The study authors recommend starting with 5 mg and repeating, if necessary, rather than initially using a dose of 10 mg.

Want to learn more about EM Pharmacology?

Read other articles in the EM Pharm Pearls Series and find previous pearls on the PharmERToxguy site.


  1. Perkins, J., Ho, J. D., Vilke, G. M., & DeMers, G. (2015). American academy of emergency medicine position statement: Safety of droperidol use in the emergency department. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 49(1), 91–97. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.12.024. PMID: 25837231.
  2. PharmERToxGuy. Onset of IM Medications for Severe Agitation. Posted Dec 12, 2019.
  3. PharmERToxGuy. QTc Prolongation and Torsades de Pointes with Droperidol in the Emergency Department. Posted Aug 30, 2020.
  4. Calver, L., & Isbister, G. K. (2013). Parenteral sedation of elderly patients with acute behavioral disturbance in the ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine31(6), 970–973. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2013.03.026. PMID: 23685060.
  5. Page, C. B., Parker, L. E., Rashford, S. J., Kulawickrama, S., Isoardi, K. Z., & Isbister, G. K. (2020). Prospective study of the safety and effectiveness of droperidol in elderly patients for pre-hospital acute behavioural disturbance. Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA32(5), 731–736. doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.13496. PMID: 32216048.

Geriatric EM: Falls Can Be Sentinel Events



A 72-year-old woman is brought to your Emergency Department (ED) after falling while rushing to the toilet. She has no visible deformity on examination and is discharged with pain medications. Two weeks later, EMS transports her to the ED after a loss of consciousness. Computed tomography (CT) of the head at that time shows a subdural hematoma.

Unfortunately, this scenario is common. Given time constraints in the ED, management plans often miss opportunities to assess a patient’s risk for falling and may not be compliant with recommendations [1, 2]. However, falling can be a sentinel event for older adult patients [3].

Falls can be sentinel events

While emergency physicians may focus on trauma burden or concern for cardiac arrhythmia acutely, falls have a surprisingly high one-year mortality rate at 21.9% [4]. Falling causes up to 12% of deaths in the geriatric population [5]. They can lead to both serious and non-serious complications, for example, fractures and intracranial injury, a decline in health and function, social isolation, increased risk of nursing home admission, and loss of confidence [6-11]. Providers in the ED can begin the process of detecting who is at high-risk for falling in the future to prevent such high morbidity and mortality.

Quick assessment in the ED

Unfortunately, while there are many tools to screen for fall risk, none have been validated in the ED. Below are some tools that can be used as part of a more complete clinical assessment.

The STEADI Algorithm [12, 13] comprises various components, including:

  1. Screening questions
    • Have you fallen in the past year? If so, how many?
    • Do you feel unsteady when standing or walking?
    • Do you worry about falling?
  2. Timed Up and Go (TUG) test [12, 14, 15]
    • The patient sits in a standard armchair. When the provider says “Go,” the patient stands up from the chair, walks 3 meters (10 feet), turn, and walk back to sit at the chair. The provider records the time.
  3. Observe the patient for gait/balance instability.

If “Yes” to any question, a TUG ≥12 seconds, or gait or balance instability, the patient may be at risk of fall and further assessment should be considered.


Tiedemann’s Brief Performance-Based Fall Risk assessment tool [16]

  1. History taking
    • Previous fall? (Y/N)
    • Medication review
      • Four or more (excluding vitamins)? (Y/N)
      • Any psychotropic? (Y/N)
  1. Visual acuity test – Unable to see all of line 16 on a low contrast visual acuity test (Y/N)
  2. Peripheral sensation test – Unable to feel 2 out of 3 trials (Y/N)
  3. Balance/Coordinated Stepping/Strength
    • Near tandem stand test (balance)- Unable to stand for 10 secs (Y/N)
    • Alternate step test (coordinated stepping)- Unable to complete in 10 secs (Y/N)
    • Sit to stand test (strength)- Unable to complete in 12 secs (Y/N)

Each “Yes” gets 1 score. We can compare the score(s) with the probability of falling.

Number of risk factorsProbability of falling


Carpenter’s ED fall risk questions [6]

  1. Presence of non-healing foot sore?
  2. Any fall in the past 12 months?
  3. Inability to cut his/her own toenails?
  4. Self-reported depression?

If there is more than 1 factor present, the patient is at increased risk for a fall in 6 months. If you are unable to use one of these screening tools, it may be most useful to review high-risk medications and observe them walk.


High-risk medications [17]

  • Sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs (especially long-acting benzodiazepines)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Major tranquilizers (phenothiazines and butyrophenones)
  • Antihypertensive drugs
  • Cardiac medications
  • Corticosteroids
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Anticholinergic drugs
  • Hypoglycemic agents
  • Any medication that is likely to affect balance


Educate the patient

An important consideration is to educate the patient on fall prevention. The American College of Emergency Physicians sponsored the creation of a video, the 7 Step Challenge to Prevent Falls, that you can include in your patient’s discharge summary or have them watch prior to discharge.

Take Home Points

  • Falls can be sentinel events and represent a high risk for morbidity and mortality for older adult patients.
  • Emergency physicians can play a crucial role in identifying patients at risk and preventing future injury.



  1. Davenport K, Alazemi M, Sri-On J, Liu S. Missed Opportunities to Diagnose and Intervene in Modifiable Risk Factors for Older Emergency Department Patients Presenting After a Fall. Ann Emerg Med. 2020;76(6):730-738. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.06.020. PMID: 33010956
  2. Tirrell G, Sri‐on J, Lipsitz LA, Camargo CA Jr, Kabrhel C, Liu SW. Evaluation of Older Adult Patients With Falls in the Emergency Department: Discordance With National Guidelines. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2015;22(4):461-467. doi: 10.1111/acem.12634. PMCID: PMC6778963
  3. Carpenter CR, Cameron A, Ganz DA, Liu S. Older Adult Falls in Emergency Medicine-A Sentinel Event. Clin Geriatr Med. 2018;34(3):355-367. doi:10.1016/j.cger.2018.04.002. PMID: 30031421
  4. Tan MP, Kamaruzzaman SB, Zakaria MI, Chin A-V, Poi PJH. Ten-year mortality in older patients attending the emergency department after a fall: Ten-year ED fall mortality. Geriatrics & Gerontology International. 2016;16(1):111-117. doi:10.1111/ggi.12446
  5. Greenhouse AH. Falls among the elderly. In: Clinical Neurology of Aging. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 1994:611-626.
  6. Carpenter CR, Scheatzle MD, D’Antonio JA, Ricci PT, Coben JH. Identification of Fall Risk Factors in Older Adult Emergency Department Patients. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2009;16(3):211-219. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00351.x. PMID: 19281493
  7. Tinetti ME, Williams CS. Falls, Injuries Due to Falls, and the Risk of Admission to a Nursing Home. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(18):1279-1284. doi:10.1056/NEJM199710303371806. PMID: 9345078
  8. Boele van Hensbroek P, van Dijk N, van Breda GF, et al. The CAREFALL Triage instrument identifying risk factors for recurrent falls in elderly patients. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2009;27(1):23-36. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2008.01.029. PMID: 19041530
  9. Tromp AM, Pluijm SMF, Smit JH, Deeg DJH, Bouter LM, Lips P. Fall-risk screening test. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2001;54(8):837-844. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(01)00349-3. PMID: 11470394
  10. Bergen G, Stevens MR, Burns ER. Falls and Fall Injuries Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years — United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:993–998. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6537a2. PMID: 27656914
  11. Gill TM, Murphy TE, Gahbauer EA, Allore HG. The Course of Disability Before and After a Serious Fall Injury. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(19):1780. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9063. PMCID: PMC3812391
  12. Stevens JA, Phelan EA. Development of STEADI: A Fall Prevention Resource for Health Care Providers. Health Promotion Practice. 2013;14(5):706-714. doi:10.1177/1524839912463576. PMCID: PMC4707651
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STEADI Algorithm for Fall Risk Screening, Assessment, and Intervention among Community-Dwelling Adults 65 years and older. Published online 2019. Accessed November 20, 2020.
  14. Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The Timed “Up & Go”: A Test of Basic Functional Mobility for Frail Elderly Persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1991 Feb;39(2):142–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x. PMID: 1991946
  15. Barry E, Galvin R, Keogh C, Horgan F, Fahey T. Is the Timed Up and Go test a useful predictor of risk of fall in community dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:14. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-14. PMCID: PMC3924230
  16. Tiedemann A, Lord SR, Sherrington C. The Development and Validation of a Brief Performance-Based Fall Risk Assessment Tool for Use in Primary Care. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2010;65A(8):896-903. doi:10.1093/gerona/glq067. PMID: 20522529
  17. Fuller GF. Falls in the elderly. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(7):2159-2168, 2173-2174. PMID: 10779256





By |2021-02-28T09:28:47-08:00Feb 8, 2021|Emergency Medicine, Geriatrics|

What is palliative emergency medicine and why now?

elder hand palliative emergency medicine care

The skilled and rapid resuscitation of critically ill patients is a central premise in the specialty of emergency medicine (EM). A paradox for providers often arises when in the midst of resuscitating a patient with advanced chronic illness, the question of risks versus benefits arises. For this patient, we may successfully stabilize vital signs, but at what cost? Will this patient return to a quality of life they deem acceptable? What are the patient’s goals of treatments given his/her underlying disease? These questions illustrate the need for emergency physicians to be more aware of and comfortable with palliative care practices.

By |2019-07-23T00:34:41-07:00Jul 31, 2019|Geriatrics, Palliative Care|

Beyond the Abstract: Patient video testimonials improve physician interpretation of advance directives and POLST

advance directives and POLST with videoOver 1,300 physicians across the U.S. were asked to interpret patient preferences for end-of-life care in theoretical cases. Physicians rarely reached consensus about patient preferences when they were given only living wills and POLST documents to interpret. The addition of a patient video testimonial helped physicians make better care decisions that reflected their patients’ wishes. Will video become the new national standard for advance care planning?


5 Tips for Managing Pain in Older Adults

painPain is the most common reason people seek care in Emergency Departments. In addition to diagnosing the cause of the pain, a major goal of emergency physicians (EPs) is to relieve pain. However, medications that treat pain can have their own set of problems and side effects. The risks of treatment are particularly pronounced in older adults, who are often more sensitive to the sedating effects of medications, and are more prone to side effects such as renal failure. EPs frequently have to find the balance between controlling pain and preventing side effects. Untreated pain has large personal, emotional, and financial costs, and more effective, multi-modal pain management can help reduce the burden that acute and chronic pain place on patients.1 There is evidence that older adults are less likely to receive pain medication in the ED.2,3 The first step to improving, is being aware of the potential tendency to under-treat pain in older adults. Here are 5 tips to help you effectively manage pain in older adults on your next shift.


By |2016-12-16T15:29:06-08:00May 25, 2016|CME, Geriatrics, Tox & Medications|

Traumatic Brain Injuries in Older Adults

Fall Risk traumatic brain injuries older adultsOlder adults are at high risk of poor outcomes from even minor head injuries. We see many older patients in the ED who present after a fall or head injury, and we have good decision rules for which patients need brain imaging.1 However, even patients with mild traumatic brain injuries, who have a negative CT scan, are at risk for mortality and significant long-term sequelae. The CDC has called traumatic brain injuries a ‘silent epidemic’.2,3 The first steps to breaking that silence are awareness and recognition.


A 75 year old male who is not on any anticoagulants presents to your ED after a mechanical fall from standing. He is mildly confused, and amnestic to the event, but otherwise has no neurologic deficits. He has some mild dizziness when he stands. What is the diagnosis, and what should you tell the patient and his family to expect?

Traumatic Brain Injuries

tbi imageFrom 2002-2006, there were about 142,000 ED visits by older adults (age 65 and over) for TBIs, 81,500 hospitalizations, and over 14,300 deaths.4 The hospitalization and death rates are much higher in this group than in younger adults. Older adults account for only 10% of TBI-related ED visits, but 50% of deaths.5 Many studies have tried to find a cutoff at which age contributes to increased morbidity and mortality, and the values have ranged from 39 to 66. However, there is consensus that after age 75, the mortality is much higher.5 Falls are the most common cause of brain injury in older adults, responsible for 60% of TBIs, compared with 33% in the population overall.2,6 Falls are also the most common cause of trauma-related mortality.7 About 8% of older adults will visit the ED every year because of a fall, and a quarter of those patients are admitted.2

There are multiple factors that put older adults at higher risk for TBI and adverse sequelae from it:

  1. They have more frequent falls. Falls are multifactorial. Gait instability, as well as poly-pharmacy can both contribute.
  2. They have higher injury severity from falls than younger patients. This may be in part due to higher rates of anti-coagulant therapy, but also physiological and anatomic changes as the dura becomes more adherent to the skull.2
  3. Older adults have more prolonged courses following injury, with slower recovery rates.8 They are at higher risk of secondary consequences such as skin breakdown from decreased mobility.

Traditionally, TBI severity has been determined based on GCS, duration of loss of consciousness and post-traumatic amnesia as outlined in this Northeastern University site. However, this determination is challenging because the GCS may fluctuate (it may improve or may worsen) with time. In addition, the patient may not fall neatly into one category based on each of those criteria. Finally, this classification system also does not take into account imaging findings, which will affect prognosis and management. The literature on this topic is complicated in part by the fact that certain publications equate concussion with mild TBI, while others consider the two separate entities.9 Other classification systems, such as the Mayo TBI classification take into account symptoms as well as CT findings.10 Acutely in the ED, the first priority is to stabilize and resuscitate, to manage the airway if needed, and to evaluate for any other trauma. If the patient is stable and imaging negative, we should at least warn the patient that there can be delayed symptoms, and encourage early follow up for re-evaluation.

Mild TBI in Older Adults

The diagnosis of mild TBI in older adults can be challenging if the patient’s baseline cognitive function is not known. It is important to try to speak with family members or caregivers who know the patient to establish whether they are usually oriented to person, place, time, and events before you can establish whether their state in the ED is a change or not. Even in older patients with mild TBIs, there are high rates of abnormal CT findings in patients with mild TBIs. In one report, 14% of older adults with mild TBIs had an abnormal CT scan, and 20% of those required neurosurgical intervention.11

Older age is associated with worse outcomes and more prolonged symptoms following injury.5,12 The mortality and rates of adverse outcomes are high even in patients with mild TBIs without abnormal CT findings. The CRASH study data13 were used to create an online prognostic tool for outcomes after TBI. Based on their predictive models, for a 70 year old male in the United States who has a GCS of 14 after TBI, with bilaterally reactive pupils, no major extra-cranial injuries, and a negative CT, the risk of 14 day mortality is 6.7%, and the risk of “unfavorable outcome” at 6 months, which they define as “dead, vegetative state, or severe disability as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Score” is 35%. By contrast, a 40-year old male with all the same characteristics will have a 14 day mortality of 0.9%, and a 6 month risk of unfavorable outcomes of 6.2%. This tool can be useful for anticipating which patients will need more services and closer follow-up, and also to help give patients and families some sense of what to expect.

As the example above illustrates, even with a mild TBI and a negative CT head, patients can experience significant, long-term sequelae, such as:6

  • Headaches
  • Worse or new cognitive impairment
  • Vestibular dysfunction and gait instability or vertigo
  • Fatigue
  • Depression or behavioral changes
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Hearing or vision changes

Case Conclusion

This patient has a GCS of 14 and has suffered a mild TBI. His 14 day mortality risk is 6.7%, and the 6 month risk of unfavorable outcome is 35%. If the head CT is negative, then a symptom and functional assessment should be done. If he is able to ambulate easily, and has family or a caregiver who can assist him if needed, he may be able to be discharged home with follow-up for physical therapy and early reassessment. If he is unstable, or is too confused to manage his activities of daily living and self-care, then other options such as admission, or referral to a rehab or skill nursing center should be considered.

The Future

In 2003, the annual cost of caring for older adults with TBI was estimated at $2.2 billion.2 As the population of older adults grows, we can expect to see even more patients in the ED for falls and TBIs. Both the impact on the health care system and resource utilization, as well as the need for longer term services, therapy visits, and nursing care are important public health concerns. Most importantly, however, the impact on individuals and their families can be great. In the ED, we play a critical role in helping educate patients and families about their injury and potential sequelae. In addition, at the time of their injury, we have the opportunity to help connect them to services to improve their changes of recovery and minimize loss of function.

Take Home Points

  • Even if a CT scan is negative, if there are concussive symptoms, make sure to tell the patient they have suffered a concussion, and set expectations that the symptoms may resolve quickly but can sometimes be prolonged (3 months) or permanent (>18 months).
  • Make sure the patient can walk stably, and will be able to manage at home with the degree of help they have available.
  • Help facilitate early follow up for therapy or rehab if needed (speech, vestibular, physical), though most patients requiring these service will likely be admitted from the ED. Therapy, rehabilitation, and good nursing care can help reduce the sequelae of TBIs by maximizing early function, and preventing loss of muscle mass, skin breakdown, and contractures.5
  • Refer to a concussion clinic if you have one available.
  • Avoid ‘ageism’ and do not assume the patient does not need or will not want maximal intervention and follow up services simply because they are older or have some cognitive deficits.
  • Have a low threshold to admit if you are concerned about their safety or if they are at high risk of deterioration.


  1. Jagoda A, Bazarian J, Bruns J, et al. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52(6):714-748. [PubMed]
  2. Thompson H, McCormick W, Kagan S. Traumatic brain injury in older adults: epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(10):1590-1595. [PubMed]
  3. CDC’s Report to Congress on Traumatic Brain Injury Epidemiology and Rehabilitation | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury Center . Published 2016. Accessed October 14, 2016.
  4. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths 2002-2006 [PDF]. Accessed October 14, 2016.
  5. Stippler M, Holguin E, Nemoto E. Traumatic brain injury in elders. Annals of Long Term Care: Clinical Care and Aging. 2012;20(5):41-46.
  6. Filer W, Harris M. Falls and traumatic brain injury among older adults. N C Med J. 2015;76(2):111-114. [PubMed]
  7. Carpenter C, Heard K, Wilber S, et al. Research priorities for high-quality geriatric emergency care: medication management, screening, and prevention and functional assessment. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(6):644-654. [PubMed]
  8. Frankel J, Marwitz J, Cifu D, Kreutzer J, Englander J, Rosenthal M. A follow-up study of older adults with traumatic brain injury: taking into account decreasing length of stay. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(1):57-62. [PubMed]
  9. Mack L, Chan S, Silva J, Hogan T. The use of head computed tomography in elderly patients sustaining minor head trauma. J Emerg Med. 2003;24(2):157-162. [PubMed]
  10. King N. A systematic review of age and gender factors in prolonged post-concussion symptoms after mild head injury. Brain Inj. 2014;28(13-14):1639-1645. [PubMed]
  11. MRC C, Perel P, Arango M, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patients. BMJ. 2008;336(7641):425-429. [PubMed]
  12. Sharp D, Jenkins P. Concussion is confusing us all. Pract Neurol. 2015;15(3):172-186. [PubMed]
  13. Malec J, Brown A, Leibson C, et al. The mayo classification system for traumatic brain injury severity. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(9):1417-1424. [PubMed]
By |2021-03-01T08:44:24-08:00Feb 8, 2016|Geriatrics, Trauma|
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