SAEM Clinical Image Series: Snowball Effects

A 13-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with complaints of a right eye injury. Five hours prior to arrival, he was struck directly in the right eye with a snowball resulting in immediate eye pain, localized swelling, some flashes of light in his vision and blurry vision. Prior to arrival, the patient had been seen at an optometry center where puff pressures of his eyes were obtained and the right eye was noted to have an increased intraocular pressure (IOP) of 46 mmHg compared to a pressure of 13 mmHg on the left. He continued to endorse photophobia and mild right eye pain.

Eye:

  • No bony tenderness or crepitus surrounding the right eye
  • Positive blood fluid level in the anterior chamber
  • EOMI
  • On confrontation of visual fields, the patient was unable to count fingers in all fields on the right but could detect light and movement
  • Red reflex could not be elicited on fundoscopic exam
  • On fluorescein exam, no flow of aqueous humor and no corneal abrasions
  • Tono-Pen IOP measurements were 41mmHg in the right eye, and 27 mmHg in the left eye

Non-contributory

The red flags include a history of vision loss and the presence of ocular hypertension with the hyphema. Ophthalmology was emergently consulted for the intraocular hypertension. By the time of evaluation by the specialist, the patient stated that his vision was less blurry and he did not see any spots in his vision. The photos demonstrate progression of the traumatic hyphema from grade IV, to grade II, and then grade I.

 

The emergent conditions that must be addressed include open globe and intraocular hypertension. Ophthalmology IOP measurements were 14 mmHg bilaterally. Visual acuities were 20/40 on the right and 20/20 on the left. A dilated eye exam with the slit lamp could not fully assess the posterior eye structures due to haziness. A metal eye shield was applied to the patient’s right eye, and he was discharged with cyclopentolate and prednisolone acetate eye drops, and an ophthalmology follow-up appointment within 24 hours. The patient was instructed to be on bed rest with the head of the bed elevated and to avoid straining.

 

 

Take-Home Points

  • In traumatic eye injury, pay attention to eye color changes with grade IV hyphema which can be missed unless you compare it to the uninjured side.
  • Look for features of an open globe which include irregularly shaped pupils, delayed consensual light response, extrusion of vitreous, Seidel’s sign (fluorescein streaming of tears away from the puncture site).
  • Beware of intraocular hypertension (>21 mmHg) with high-grade traumatic hyphema which needs to be emergently addressed to prevent optic nerve atrophy and permanent vision loss.

  • Brandt MT, Haug RH. Traumatic hyphema: a comprehensive review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001 Dec;59(12):1462-70. doi: 10.1053/joms.2001.28284. PMID: 11732035.
  • Gharaibeh A, Savage HI, Scherer RW, Goldberg MF, Lindsley K. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD005431. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005431.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD005431. PMID: 21249670; PMCID: PMC3437611.

 

IDEA Series: DIY Suture Kit Station

laceration suture repair closure

In medical training there is a lack of simulation based activities including procedural labs. Suturing is a critical skill for trainees to master in the emergency department. However, supervised practice is needed prior to suturing a real patient for the first time. This innovation allows early trainees to master suturing while on shift, using easy to find materials, which increases procedural competency and confidence. This activity allows the teacher to assess and correct the trainees procedural skills prior to attempting to suture a real patient.

Name of innovation

  • This Do-It-Yourself Suture Kit Station incorporates easy to find materials available in every emergency department, allowing early trainees to master suturing prior to suturing real patients.

Learners targeted

  • Medical students and early trainees who need suture practice

General group size

  • One-on-one student training is ideal, but can have multiple students who can practice using multiple suturing stations
  • If teacher unable to instruct while on shift, trainees can be shown a suture training video and practice alongside the video

DIY suture training kit for laceration repair

Materials needed

  • Blue chuck pad
  • Paper/cloth tape
  • Scalpel
  • Suture material
  • Suture kit

More detailed description of the activity and how it was run

  • Make the DIY Suture Kit Station (see above video):
    • Place a thick chuck pad on a flat sturdy surface.
    • Apply cloth tape to the entire surface of the chuck, and tape over the chuck. This is now the suturing pad.
    • Use a scalpel to make an incision to the pad.
    • Use the back blunt end of the scalpel to ‘fluff’ up incision edges to make laceration.
  • Use a laceration repair kit and suture to close the laceration.
  • Instruct the trainee on proper suturing technique on the suture station (or show a suture training video)
  • Have the trainee continue practicing until adequate comfort and proficiency level is achieved
  • Suture real patient!

Lessons learned, especially with regard to increasing resident and program buy in

  • Procedural skills require much repetition to gain proficiency. This is best done with video tutorials, supervision, and deliberate practice.
  • Practicing in a simulated environment greatly improves skill and confidence in real clinical practice.

Educational theory behind the innovation including specifics/styles of teaching involved

  • Simulation practice increases procedural competency.
  • Practicing on shift allows trainees to reach the number of repetitions required to gain mastery in suturing, Routt [1] showed that the number of repetitions required to gain proficiency was 41 times.
  • Competency in suturing is required even when cases are low. Wongkietachorn et al. demonstrated that tutoring suturing improves the trainees’ skillset. A practice suture kit helps improve retention for real-life scenarios [2].

Pearls

  • This DIY suture pad station technique is easily available and inexpensive.
  • To improve suturing techniques and enhance skill retention, medical students and early trainees need to learn with guided supervision on simulated task trainers.

 

References

  1. Routt E, Mansouri Y, de Moll EH, Bernstein DM, Bernardo SG, Levitt J. Teaching the Simple Suture to Medical Students for Long-term Retention of Skill. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jul;151(7):761-5. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.118. PMID: 25785695.
  2. Wongkietkachorn A, Rhunsiri P, Boonyawong P, Lawanprasert A, Tantiphlachiva K. Tutoring Trainees to Suture: An Alternative Method for Learning How to Suture and a Way to Compensate for a Lack of Suturing Cases. J Surg Educ. 2016 May-Jun;73(3):524-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.12.004. Epub 2016 Feb 20. PMID: 26907573.
By |2021-10-08T10:19:05-07:00Oct 15, 2021|IDEA series, Trauma|

EMRad: Can’t Miss Adult Traumatic Hip and Pelvis Injuries

 

Have you ever been working a shift at 3 AM and wondered, “Am I missing something? I’ll just splint and instruct the patient to follow up with their PCP in 1 week.” This is a reasonable approach, especially if you’re concerned there could be a fracture. But we can do better. Enter the “Can’t Miss” series: a series organized by body part that will help identify injuries that ideally should not be missed. This list is not meant to be a comprehensive review of each body part, but rather to highlight and improve your sensitivity for these potentially catastrophic injuries. We’ve already covered the adult elbow, wrist, shoulder, ankle/foot, and knee. Now: the hip.

 

(more…)

By |2021-09-01T17:23:13-07:00Sep 3, 2021|Orthopedic, Radiology, SplintER, Trauma|

SplintER Series: One Big Bounce

 

A 5-year-old boy presents with right leg pain and a limp. His parents report it started after he was bouncing on the trampoline with his older sibling but they did not notice any specific trauma. He has tenderness over his proximal shin with no obvious injury. You suspect a fracture and obtain x-rays of the right knee (Figure 1).

Figure 1. AP and Lateral x-rays of the right knee. Case courtesy of Dr Andrew Dixon, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 16139

(more…)

EMRad: Can’t Miss Pediatric Elbow Injuries

 

Have you ever been working a shift at 3 am and wondered, “Am I missing something? I’ll just splint and instruct the patient to follow up with their PCP in 1 week.” This can be a reasonable approach, especially if you’re concerned there could be a fracture. But we can do better. Enter the “Can’t Miss” series: a series organized by body part that will help identify common and catastrophic injuries. This list is not meant to be a comprehensive review of each body part, but rather to highlight and improve your sensitivity for these potentially catastrophic injuries. We reviewed the approach to the pediatric elbow previously. Now, the “Can’t Miss” pediatric elbow injuries. (more…)

By |2021-04-10T10:24:46-07:00Apr 5, 2021|EMRad, Orthopedic, Pediatrics, Radiology, Trauma|
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