According to the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, approximately 630,000 adults in the United States have cirrhosis of the liver, 69% of which are reportedly unaware of having liver disease. A diagnostic paracentesis is a simple procedure for identifying spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. A just-in-time training (JITT) model incorporating low-fidelity equipment readily available in the ED can facilitate procedural teaching of the diagnostic paracentesis.(more…)
A 48-year-old male presents with 2 weeks of severe right lower quadrant abdominal pain and inguinal pain. The patient had similar pain 2 weeks ago, was referred to a surgery clinic, but was lost to follow up. The pain has been progressively worsening over the last 2 days. It’s now severe, associated with nausea and vomiting, does not radiate, and it is worsened with coughing and sneezing. He also endorses polyuria for an unknown length of time. His last bowel movement was 3 days ago. He denies diarrhea, constipation, hematochezia, melena, dysuria, hematuria, or recent trauma.
A 4 week-old female infant presents due to yellow discharge from her umbilicus and mom noticing a red mass coming from the umbilical area after changing her diaper today. She is a healthy infant born at 40 weeks by vaginal delivery without complications and weighed 6 lbs 1 oz at birth. She is feeding 4 oz of formula every 3-4 hours. She received immunizations at birth and has an established pediatrician.
34-year-old female with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and pancreatitis presents for epigastric and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Her symptoms started yesterday evening and have been worsening since onset. She reports chronic epigastric pain that waxes and wanes for several years since her first episode of pancreatitis in 2014. Yesterday she had an abrupt onset of nausea that accompanied the pain without emesis. The pain worsened and is now currently 10/10 in severity. She describes it as severe and deep. She has no bloody or dark stool. She denies any heavy alcohol use, changes in medications, or drug use.
Chief complaint: Foreign Body Ingestion
History of Present Illness:
A 4-year-old male presents to the Pediatric ED for evaluation of swallowed foreign body.
The mother reports the patient was at his grandmother’s house playing near a cabinet when they witnessed him put a small unknown object in his mouth and swallow. Family denies vomiting, difficulty breathing, change in behavior, abdominal pain, or any additional symptoms at this time.
Severe constipation, requiring fecal disimpaction and rectal enemas, can be excruciatingly painful for patients. Administering sedatives and opioids to help alleviate this pain poses a challenge, because many of the patients are elderly and tend to be more sensitive to these medications. Furthermore, there may be increased vagal tone when straining, leading to hypotension and bradycardia and which can result in defecation-related syncope. 1 Also, opioids can exacerbate constipation. Herein we present 2 cases and tricks on achieving better pain control.
Chief Complaint: Abdominal distention
History of Present Illness: A 36-year-old male with a history of cerebral palsy, gastrointestinal dysmotility, epilepsy, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and insomnia presents to the ED after referral by his family physician for a 3-day history of abdominal distention. Due to the patient’s neurological disorder, he is unable to communicate but is accompanied by his mother who provides his medical history. The patient’s mother states that he had a loose bowel movement this morning, which is normal for him. He has had a history of bowel problems since the age of 14. Two months previously the patient was admitted for abdominal distention and had a rectal tube placed which relieved his symptoms. The patient has not experienced nausea, vomiting, or changes in bowel movements.