ALiEM Cards is point-of-care reference library of narrowly focused, easily digestible cards for the practicing emergency physician or learner (formerly known as PV Cards). As of July 2017 led by the team of Dr. Jeremy Voros and Derek Sifford, we have rebranded these into “ALiEM Cards”.

Index of Topics

TopicPDFMajor SubjectMinor SubjectBlog pageDate
Abdominal pain, diagnostic studiesPDFSurgery, traumaDiagnosticsBlog2011/07/22
Abdominal trauma, blunt (likelihood ratios)PDFSurgery, traumaBayesBlog2012/04/20
Abdominal trauma, penetratingPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/07/09
ABG interpretationPDFPulmonary, critical careDiagnosticsBlog2010/04/02
Acetaminophen toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/11/04
Acute limb ischemiaPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/08/13
Acute vestibular syndrome and HINTS examPDFNeurologyBlog2011/12/02
Alcohol: Ethylene glycolPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/08
Alcohol: Isopropyl alcoholPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/22
Alcohol: MethanolPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/15
AnaphylaxisPDFAllergy, ImmunologyBlog2012/02/24
AngioedemaPDFAllergy, ImmunologyBlog2010/03/26
Ankle and Hindfoot FracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2016/06/06
Ankle fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/02/18
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillationPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/04/09
Aortic dissection (IRAD)PDFCardiovascularBlog2011/05/20
Appendicitis: ACEP clinical policyPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/06/18
Asthma NIH classificationsPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/04/29
Bayes nomogramPDFBayes2012/05/17
Bell’s Palsy: TreatmentPDFNeurologyBlog2013/02/21
Blood culture indicationsPDFInfectious diseaseBayesBlog2012/08/17
Blunt cardiac injuryPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2012/06/29
Brugada syndromePDFCardiovascularBlog2011/05/06
BurnsPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2016/04/22 update (original 7/2/2010)
C1-C2 fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/09/24
C3-C7 fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/10/01
Cardiac tamponadePDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2011/07/08
Cerebrovascular injury, bluntPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/07/01
Cervical spine rulesPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/12/10
Cervical spine, distracting injuryPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/09/09
Charting and CodingPDFAdministrativeBlog2016/08/15
Chemical sedationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/03/25
Chest pain, low risk ACSPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/01/29
CHF likelihood ratiosPDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2012/08/24
Cholecystitis testsPDFSurgery, traumaBayesBlog2011/03/18
Clostridium difficilePDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/06/24
CNS infectionsPDFNeurologyBlog2009/12/29
Continuous end tidal CO2 monitoring in cardiac arrestPDFPulmonary, Critical CareBlog2015/10/20
Continuous infusionsPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/03/09
CroupPDFPediatricsBlog2010/08/20
CT cancer riskPDFRadiologyBlog2011/06/10
Cystitis/Pyelonephritis Women AntibioticsPDFGenitourinaryBlog2011/09/02
D-dimerPDFHematology, oncologyDiagnosticsBlog2012/07/12
Delayed sequence intubationPDFAirway, pulmonaryBlog2012/08/31
Dental infectionsPDFENTBlog2011/04/22
Dental traumaPDFENTBlog2011/04/15
Dermatomes and myotomesPDFNeurologyAnatomyBlog2010/05/28
Diabetic foot osteomyelitisPDFOrthopedicsBayesBlog2011/09/23
Diverticulitis outpatientPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/05/27
Drug Card Emergency DepartmentPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2013/09/11
DVT Diagnostic Guidelines (ACCP)PDFCardiovascularBlog2013/01/24
DysphagiaPDFENTBlog2010/02/03
Early goal directed therapy in sepsisPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2010/04/16
ECG: Early repolarization vs STEMIPDFCardiovascularBlog2013/05/16
ECG: Electrolyte imbalancePDFCardiovascular, EndocrineBlog2012/09/21
ECG: Geography of AMIPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/04/08
ECG: Lead aVRPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/11/18
ECG: Right and posterior leadsPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/03/11
Ectopic PregnancyPDFObstetrics/gynecologyBayesBlog2013/05/09
EMTALA rules in the transfer of ED patientsPDFAdministrativeBlog2012/09/14
Genital ulcersPDFGenitourinaryBlog2012/05/04
GRACE scorePDFCardiovascularBlog2012/04/13
Head CT before LPPDFNeurologyBlog2010/04/23
Head CT in trauma: Decision rulesPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/05/13
HyperkalemiaPDFEndocrine, metabolicBlog2010/03/12
Hypertension: First line treatmentPDFCardiovascularBlog2011/02/11
Hypothermia, accidentalPDFEnvironmentalBlog2011/02/04
Influenza treatmentPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/10/28
Intimate partner violencePDFTraumaBlog2013/07/31
Intraosseous lab interpretationPDFHematology, oncologyDiagnosticsBlog2012/01/13
IV fluid composition and Chloride-restrictive fluids in ICUPDFEndocrine, metabolicBlog2012/01/03
Kawasaki diseasePDFPediatricsBlog2012/03/23
Knee examPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/03/19
Laceration repair and suturesPDFTraumaBlog2017/03/06
Legionnaires diseasePDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/09/16
Local anesthetic toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2014/06/13
Metacarpal fracturePDFOrthopedicsBlog2013/12/13
Methotrexate and ectopic pregnancyPDFGynecology, obstetricsBlog2011/11/11
Murmurs and need for echocardiographyPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/09/17
Neutropenic fever and cancerPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/10/07
NSAID bleeding riskPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/07/15
One minute preceptor: NERDS mnemonicPDFEducationBlog2015/08/01
Open fractures and antibioticsPDFOrthopedicsBlog2012/01/20
Osmolal gapPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/01
Ottawa knee, ankle, foot rulesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/05/07
Overanticoagulation and supratherapeutic INRPDFHematology, oncologyBlog2012/08/10
Pain medications: Initial options in the EDPDFToxicologyBlog2015/10/23
Palliative Care Screening in the EDPDFPalliative CareBlog2015/07/27
Paracentesis and ascites assessmentPDFGastroenterologyBlog2010/06/25
PE clinical decision rulesPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/06/03
PE indications for fibrinolysisPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/07/29
Pediatric assessment trianglePDFPediatricsBlog2013/05/30
Pediatric fever (1-3 months old)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/02/02
Pediatric fever (3 mo- 3 yrs old)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/02/09
Pediatric fever (neonate)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/01/27
Pediatric head trauma (PECARN)PDFSurgery, traumaPediatricsBlog2010/02/04
Pediatric ingestion dose thresholds for ED referralPDFToxicology, pharmacologyPediatricsBlog2014/07/09
Pediatric pertussis algorithmPDFPulmonary, critical carePediatricsBlog2010/10/29
Pediatric sizes and dosesPDFPediatricsBlog2010/10/23
PericarditisPDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/05
PertussisPDFPulmonary, critical careBayesBlog2010/09/03
PESI score for pulmonary embolismPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2012/11/17
Pneumonia scoresPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/02/25
Post-exposure prophylaxis, non-occupPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/04/01
Procedural sedationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/08/06
Rapid sequence intubationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/07/16
Rashes, approach toPDFDermatologyBlog2011/08/26
Red eyePDFOphthalmologyBlog2010/01/22
Salicylate toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2015/06/15
Scaphoid fracturePDFOrthopedicsBlog2016/02/01
Seizure, first timePDFNeurologyBlog2011/01/13
Seizure, status epilepticusPDFNeurologyBlog2011/01/20
Septic arthritisPDFOrthopedicsBayesBlog2010/06/11
Serotonin syndromePDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/01/06
Sgarbossa criteria for LBBBPDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2010/11/05
Shift feedback cardPDFEducationBlog2011/12/09
Shock and RUSH protocolPDFCardiovascularBlog2009/12/22
Shock, vasopressors and inotropesPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/04/30
Shoulder examPDFOrthopedicsBlog2011/01/28
Spinal epidural abscessPDFNeurologyBlog2011/08/05
Streptococcal pharyngitisPDFENTBlog2010/07/30
Stroke scale NIHPDFNeurologyBlog2010/02/26
Stroke: Contraindications for ThrombolyticsPDFNeurologyBlog2013/05/23
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, atraumaticPDFNeurologyBlog2010/03/05
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, high riskPDFNeurologyBlog2010/12/17
Suicide risk stratificationPDFPsychiatryBlog2011/02/18
Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Aberrancy vs Ventricular Tachycardia (VT): Brugada CriteriaPDFCardiovascularBlog2013/02/27
Suture materialsPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/01/07
Tachycardia, approach toPDFCardiovascularBlog2011/08/19
TIMI scorePDFCardiovascularBlog2010/08/27
Toxidromes and vital signsPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/11/19
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)PDFNeurologyBlog2010/01/05
Ultrasound: 1st Trimester Pregnancy (Transabdominal)PDFGynceology, obstetricsBlog2015/02/25
Ultrasound: 1st Trimester Pregnancy (Transvaginal)PDFGynceology, obstetricsBlog2015/03/04
Ultrasound: Abdominal AortaPDFRadiologyBlog2014/09/13
Ultrasound: Biliary ExamPDFGastroenterologyBlog2015/01/01
Ultrasound: Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)PDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/18
Ultrasound: FASTPDFRadiologyBlog2014/09/14
Ultrasound: Focused EchocardiographyPDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/11
Ultrasound: Lung ExamPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2015/02/04
Ultrasound Measurements: Normal ValuesPDFRadiologyUltrasoundBlog2015/10/15
Ultrasound: Ocular ExamPDFOphthalmologyBlog2015/01/28
Ultrasound: Skin and Soft TissuePDFDermatologyBlog2015/01/07
Ultrasound: Testicular ExamPDFGenitourinaryBlog2015/01/21
Upper GI bleedPDFGastroenterologyBayesBlog2011/06/17
Urine toxicologyPDFToxicology, pharmacologyDiagnosticBlog2010/07/22
UTI, cystitisPDFGenitourinaryBlog2010/02/11
VBG versus ABGPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2013/01/31
Ventilator settings: Lung protectionPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/10/14
Ventilator settings: Obstructive diseasePDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/10/21


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PV Card: Local anesthetic toxicity calculations

Local Anesthetic LidocaineLocal anesthetics (LAs) are widely employed to achieve tissue infiltration, peripheral and regional anesthesia, and neuraxial blockades. Despite their well-established toxic dose limits, these agents continue to pose a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality due to local anesthetic toxicity and overdose.

For example, LAs and epinephrine account for a large proportion of medication errors resulting in adverse patient outcomes due to drug dosing miscalculations or errors converting between units. Dosage calculations vary by patient weight as well as by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of individual LA formulations. Further, non-standard units, additives (epinephrine), and varying concentrations among LAs complicate correct dosage derivations.

Toxicity nomogram

In an effort to curb calculation errors and avert LA toxicity, Williams and Walker derived a helpful nomogram1 to calculate the maximum, weight-based volume of commonly used LAs (lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine). This nomogram was validated against a calculator in the original article. Please note that while this nomogram may aid in dosage verification, there is no substitute for a second, independent derivation of the total maximum dose using a different method, as an additional safeguard to prevent dosage error.

Local anesthetic toxicity presentation

LA toxicity presents clinically as a constellation of symptoms including, but not limited to, tinnitus, circumoral tingling, metallic taste, and dizziness. Severe manifestations include altered mentation, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse. Management is predicated upon stopping the offending agent, providing supportive measures, and administering weight-based intravenous 20% lipid emulsion. The authors, Williams and Walker, derived a separate nomogram to guide treatment by calculating the appropriate weight-based lipid therapy, specifying the initial bolus amount, infusion rate, and total maximum dose of lipid emulsion.

Both the toxicity and lipid emulsion nomograms are displayed in this Paucis Verbis card.

Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Ideal Body Weight (IBW) Calculation

The Devine formulation is the most commonly accepted calculation (most applicable for people at least 60 inches, or 5 feet, tall):

  • IBW for men (kg) = 50 + 2.3 * (Height (in)-60)
  • IBW for women (kg) = 45.5 + 2.3 * (Height (in)-60)

See the MDCalc calculator for IBW.

Reference

  1. Williams D, Walker J. A nomogram for calculating the maximum dose of local anaesthetic. Anaesthesia. 2014;69(8):847-853. [PubMed]

Did you know that there are new Tox/Meds PV Cards?

tox AgileMDDon’t know when to use ketofol for procedure sedation or if you can rapidly load phenytoin? See the new PV-Plus Cards on AgileMD for free on any smartphone/tablet/desktop. Other topics include:

  • Thrombolytics for submassive PE
  • Vasopressor agents for the hypotensive patients
  • Tramadol
  • t-PA for codes
  • Searchable Emergency Drug Card with dosages for Adults and Pediatrics

UPDATE Jan 1, 2018: The PV Cards are no longer on AgileMD.

By |2018-01-30T02:31:50-08:00Mar 5, 2014|ALiEM Cards, Tox & Medications|

PV Card: Emergency Drug Cards for Adults and Children

MedicationSyringeDrawRob Bryant, MD (@RobJBryant13), Amie Hatch, PharmD, BCPS (@Amie_EMPharmD), and Jeremy Bair, PharmD (@bairpharm) from Intermountain Healthcare in Utah have created and adopted a fantastic medication reference card which is used by physicians and nurses in the Emergency Department. The medications were chosen because they are often prone to dosing errors and require time-sensitive ordering. They generously offered to share this incredibly compact resource for free to the Emergency Medicine community as a PV card. If you see them, give them a high-five.

(more…)

PV Card: Brugada Criteria for SVT with Aberrancy vs Ventricular Tachycardia

2011_04_22Awm

Due to the overwhelming popularity of Dr. Salim Rezaie‘s recent post discussing the Brugada criteria for  SVT with aberrancy vs VT, Dr. Jason West (@JWestEM, an EM resident from Jacobi/Montefiore) kindly helped to co-author and package this information into a PV card for quick reference. To use this sequential, four-question approach, if at any time you answer YES to the question, it is ventricular tachycardia.

PV Card: SVT vs VT – Brugada Criteria


Adapted from [1]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Reference

  1. Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, Smeets J, Andries E. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83(5):1649-1659. [PubMed]

PV Card: Intimate partner violence

cycle_of_violence

In the Emergency Department, we too often under-estimate our patients’ likelihood for intimate partner violence (IPV). Unfortunately, there is no perfect screening test to detect this. So one must maintain a high index of suspicion. Once you detect it, what questions should you ask to ensure her/his safety and how do you optimize the resources available to her/him?

Created by Trevor Wilson (UCSF medical student) and Dr. Beth Kaplan (UCSF/SFGH), the following PV pocket card reviews how to screen, document, intervene, and provide resources for the patient. Learn the “SAFE” questions.1,2

PV Card: Intimate Partner Violence

Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

References

  1. Ashur M. Asking about domestic violence: SAFE questions. JAMA. 1993;269(18):2367. [PubMed]
  2. Moyer V, U.S. P. Screening for intimate partner violence and abuse of elderly and vulnerable adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(6):478-486. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-06T19:50:43-07:00Jul 31, 2013|ALiEM Cards, Trauma|

PV card: Pediatric Assessment Triangle

Have you heard of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle? Taught in the Pediatric Education for Prehospital Professionals (PEPP) certification course, it provides a clear and simple approach to the emergency assessment of pediatric patients. The following PV card summarizes the PAT:

PV Card: Pediatric Assessment Triangle


Adapted from [1]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Reference

  1. Dieckmann R, Brownstein D, Gausche-Hill M. The pediatric assessment triangle: a novel approach for the rapid evaluation of children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26(4):312-315. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-06T19:54:37-07:00May 30, 2013|ALiEM Cards, Pediatrics|
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