ALiEM AIR Series | Psychosocial Module 2024

Welcome to the AIR Psychosocial Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts in the past 12 months from the top 50 sites of the Digital Impact Factor [1], the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality online content related to related to psychosocial emergencies in the Emergency Department. 3 blog posts met our standard of online excellence and were approved for residency training by the AIR Series Board. More specifically, we identified 1 AIR and 2 Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 1 hours of III credit for this module.

AIR Stamp of Approval and Honorable Mentions

In an effort to truly emphasize the highest quality posts, we have 2 subsets of recommended resources. The AIR stamp of approval is awarded only to posts scoring above a strict scoring cut-off of ≥30 points (out of 35 total), based on our scoring instrument. The other subset is for “Honorable Mention” posts. These posts have been flagged by and agreed upon by AIR Board members as worthwhile, accurate, unbiased, and appropriately referenced despite an average score.

Take the AIR Psychosocial Module at ALiEMU

Interested in taking the AIR quiz for fun or asynchronous (Individualized Interactive Instruction) credit? Please go to the above link. You will need to create a free, 1-time login account.

Highlighted Quality Posts: Psychosocial

Rebel EMLow Dose vs Standard Dose Take-Home Buprenorphine From the EDTara Persaud Holmes, MD, MBA5 June 2023AIR
Don’t Forget the BubblesMedical Emergencies in Eating DisordersOwen Hibberd, Kat Priddis29 Sep 2023HM
RCEM LearningAcute DystoniaEsther Wilson12 Aug 2023HM

(AIR = Approved Instructional Resource; HM = Honorable Mention)

If you have any questions or comments on the AIR series, or this AIR module, please contact us!

Lin M, Phipps M, Chan TM, et al. Digital Impact Factor: A Quality Index for Educational Blogs and Podcasts in Emergency Medicine and Critical Care. Ann Emerg Med. 2023;82(1):55-65. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.02.011, PMID 36967275

Should Diphenhydramine be included in an Acute Agitation Regimen?


Acute agitation in the emergency department is a common issue that frequently requires the use of chemical sedation to preserve safety for patients and healthcare workers. A commonly employed treatment regimen is the combination of haloperidol 5 mg + lorazepam 2 mg + diphenhydramine 50 mg (B-52). Diphenhydramine is included in this treatment regimen primarily to prevent extrapyramidal symptoms [1,2]. However, the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) with haloperidol is quite low when treating agitation in the emergency department (ED) [3,4]. Therefore, the excessive and prolonged sedation from adding prophylactic diphenhydramine may outweigh the intended benefit and should be reserved for treatment of EPS if symptoms occur.


Jeffers et al. conducted a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study which compared the efficacy and safety of haloperidol, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine (B-52) (n=200) vs. haloperidol and lorazepam (52) (n=200) in treating patients >18 years old with acute agitation in the ED [5]. Their primary outcome was the administration of additional agitation medication(s) within 2 hours.

Outcomes52 (n=200)B52 (n=200)p-Value
Administration of additional sedative within 2 h, n (%)40 (20)28 (14)0.11
Median ED LOS (hours)13.8170.03
Use of restraints, n (%)53 (26.5)86 (43)0.001
Hypotension, n (%)7 (3.5)32 (16)<0.001
Administration of anticholinergic within 2 days, n (%)15 (7.5%)6 (3%)0.04
    Itching/allergies, n (%)1 (0.5)1 (0.5)1.00
    Home benztropine, n (%)2 (1)4 (2)0.41
    Insomnia, n (%)4 (2)0 (0)0.06
    Unknown, n (%)8 (4)1 (0.5)0.02


Overall, the B-52 combination resulted in more oxygen desaturation, hypotension, physical restraint use, and longer length of stay. However, the conclusions from this study may be limited as it was a relatively small study and  it used surrogate markers to assess clinical endpoints.

Further discussion regarding the onset and duration of IM medications for acute agitation may be found in this blog post.

Bottom Line

  • The risk of extrapyramidal symptoms following haloperidol for agitation in the ED is relatively low
  • Diphenhydramine may not be necessary when using haloperidol + lorazepam to treat agitation in the ED
  • ED length of stay is increased with the addition of diphenhydramine to haloperidol + lorazepam

Want to learn more about EM Pharmacology?

Read other articles in the EM Pharm Pearls Series and find previous pearls on the PharmERToxguy site.


  1. Mokhtari A, Yip O, Alain J, Berthelot S. Prophylactic administration of diphenhydramine to reduce neuroleptic side effects in the acute care setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Emerg Med. 2021 Feb;60(2):165–74. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.09.031. PMID: 33131965.
  2. Vinson DR, Drotts DL. Diphenhydramine for the prevention of akathisia induced by prochlorperazine: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Feb;37(2):125–31. doi: 10.1067/mem.2001.113032. PMID: 11174228. 
  3. Klein LR, Driver BE, Miner JR, Martel ML, Hessel M, Collins JD, et al. Intramuscular midazolam, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or haloperidol for treating acute agitation in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 Oct;72(4):374–85. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.04.027. PMID: 29885904.
  4. Schneider A, Mullinax S, Hall N, Acheson A, Oliveto AH, Wilson MP. Intramuscular medication for treatment of agitation in the emergency department: A systematic review of controlled trials. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Aug;46:193–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.07.013. PMID: 33071100.
  5. Jeffers T, Darling B, Edwards C, Vadiei N. Efficacy of combination haloperidol, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine vs. Combination haloperidol and lorazepam in the treatment of acute agitation: a multicenter retrospective cohort study. J Emerg Med. 2022 Mar 11;S0736-4679(22)00057-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.01.009. PMID: 35287982.

Human Trafficking in the ED – What you need to know

Human trafficking is a devastating crime, where a human being’s labor is exploited through force, fraud, or coercion, for someone else’s profit (1). For survivors, connecting to support in the community can be incredibly difficult, and may come at the expense of their personal safety (1, 2).

The emergency department (ED) is a rare exception, with some studies estimating that over 60% of trafficked persons will present at some point during their exploitation to the ED (3). Unfortunately, less than 5% of emergency physicians report feeling confident in their ability to identify a trafficked person, citing confusion around patient characteristics and their role as a provider (4).

By learning more about human trafficking, ED providers can better prepare themselves to identify and provide appropriate support to those who experience human trafficking.

What can I do to be ready in the ED?

  • Understand what human trafficking is and its consequences
  • Recognize personal bias
  • Become familiar with how to identify, assess, document, and refer cases of human trafficking
  • Know your options for survivor advocacy

Click to view full-size image.

human trafficking overview infographic

Just the Facts – Human Trafficking

What is Human Trafficking?

Human trafficking always involves 3 components –an act, a means, and a purpose.

  • The “act” refers to the role a trafficker is playing in exploiting the person
  • The “means” refers to the use of force, fraud, or coercion to exploit a person
  • The “purpose” is what type of labor they are exploited for (1)

Often human trafficking will overlap with other crimes such as assault, domestic violence, rape, and child abuse (5). Of note, anyone under the age of 18 engaged in commercial sex is considered to be sex trafficked regardless of whether a means is present, as they cannot provide consent.

How many people are affected?

Human trafficking is widespread, but is often undetected, making true estimates of size difficult.

For example, human trafficking prevalence estimates may fail to account for survivors who do not recognize they are being exploited or are afraid to disclose (6, 7).

Who is trafficked?

 While no identity is spared, there are certain populations that are at greater risk. These may include:

  • People of color
  • Children in welfare and juvenile justice systems
  • Runaway and homeless youth
  • Children working in agriculture
  • Indigenous patients
  • Migrant laborers
  • Foreign national domestic workers
  • Patients with limited English
  • Patients with disabilities
  • Members of the LGBTQ community
  • Patients with limited education
  • Patients who use substances (6,8)

Why are they targeted?

The only thing all trafficked persons have in common is their vulnerability (1). Trafficking determinants can be conceptualized as “push” and “pull” factors. Push factors lead people to away from their current situation to trafficking (e.g., abuse, poverty, family conflict). Pull factors, drive an individual to something new that increases the risk of trafficking (e.g., income, housing, access to substances) (9, 10).

Who are the traffickers?

In the same way that anyone can be trafficked, anyone can be a trafficker.

Traffickers may be well known in the community, recruiting victims from places of employment or education (1). They may be a family member. They may also lure at-risk individuals by acting as a romantic partner, or by providing emotional affirmation, financial assistance, and material goods (1).

How do traffickers coerce survivors?

A number of tactics can be employed by traffickers, each tailored to the individual survivor but can include any combination of the following (1).

  • Physical violence
  • Sexual violence
  • Emotional violence
  • Withholding basic needs (food, water, shelter)
  • Intimidation
  • Coercion and threats
  • Economic coercion
  • Social isolation 

Specific situations to be wary of:

  • Runaway or homeless youth – greater incidence of “survival sex,” where sexual acts are exchanged for basic necessities (1, 11)
  • Recent immigrantswithholding documentation/ fear of deportation are used as powerful coercion tactic (1, 5, 6)

What are some of the health consequences of Human Trafficking (6)?

  • Physical abuse (traumatic injury, chronic pain)
  • Sexual abuse (sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy)
  • Emotional abuse (post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide ideation)
  • Poor living conditions (malnutrition, dehydration, exposure injuries)
  • Substance use, overdose
  • Death

10 Common Misconceptions of Human Trafficking

    human trafficking misconceptions

Click to view full-size images

Guide for Emergency Department Providers

What are the primary goals of an ED visit with a potentially trafficked patient?

  1. Address the acute presenting illness or injury
  2. Establish the ED as a haven from trauma or exploitation
  3. Offer additional resources, if appropriate and available

The goal of the visit is NOT to elicit a disclosure.

Your role as a provider is not to investigate or confirm the presence of trafficking, but to respect the autonomy of the patient in front of you, meet their healthcare needs, and empower them to seek additional support on their terms.

What steps should I take during my encounter?

  1. Capitalize on the same “trauma-informed” principles used to care for survivors of intimate partner violence and child maltreatment.
  2. Encounter tips (1, 6, 12)
    • Separate the potential victim from accompanying persons
  3. If difficult, ask the patient to move to another room for an x-ray or routine test.
    • Use a trained interpreter when required
    • Foster trust and establish rapport
    • Use education about rights and resources as an empowerment tool (12)
  4. Providing nonjudgmental education around violence and safety can normalize the sharing of information and open discussion (12)
    • Be patient
    • Always get consent before proceeding with any next steps (physical exam, diagnostic tests, and involvement of other providers)

human trafficking providers guide part 1     

Click for full-size images

Red flags For Human Trafficking (1, 13)

Patient IndicatorsCompanion Indicators
Delayed presentationRefuses to leave
Discrepancy between history and clinical presentationInsists on translating or speaking for the patient
Scripted/memorized historyControlling, interrupting
Hypervigilance, fearfulHas patient’s documents in their possession
Cannot produce identificationEmployer demanding access to medical information
Work-related injury with unsafe conditions
Fearful attachment to a cell phone (often used for communication and tracking)

Red flags for pediatric patients (1, 14)

  • Accompanied by unrelated, non-guardian adults
  • Material possessions you reasonably doubt they would be able to afford
  • Truancy or running away
  • Multiple sexual “partners”

What are the next steps after my assessment?

Any next steps should always be determined by the patient

  • Consider offering admission if unsafe to discharge
  • Clear and accurate documentation (may be relevant to future legal proceedings)
  • Consider notifying security if appropriate (6)

Unless local criteria for mandatory reporting are met, Police should only be contacted at the explicit instruction of the patient  (6, 16).

Interested in advocacy?

Consider implementing an ED and institutional protocol for human trafficking. A complete protocol guide is available through HEAL Trafficking.


  1. Alpert EJ, Ahn R, Albright E  et al. Human Trafficking: Guidebook on Identification, Assessment, and Response in a Healthcare Setting. Boston, MA: MGH Human Trafficking Initiative, Division of Global Health and Human Rights, Department of Emergency Medicine.
  2. Human Trafficking. Public Safety Canada, Government of Canada. 2019.
  3. Lederer L, Wetzel C. The Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking and Their Implications for Identifying Victims in Healthcare Facilities. Ann Heal Law. 2013;23(1):61–91.
  4. Viergever RF, West H, Borland R, Zimmerman C. Health care providers and human trafficking: What do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean, and Central America. Front Public Heal. 2015;3:1–9. PMID: 25688343
  5. Canada’s Human Trafficking Laws. British Columbia Public Health Agency. 2014.
  6. Shandro J, Chisolm-Straker M, Duber HC, Findlay SL, Munoz J, Schmitz G, et al. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;68(4):501-508.e1. PMID: 27130802
  7. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons [Internet]. New York; 2014. Available from:
  8. 2021 Trafficking in Persons Report – United States Department of State [Internet]. U.S. Department of State; 2021. Available from:
  9. Macias Konstantopoulos W, Ahn R, Alpert EJ, Cafferty E, McGahan A, Williams TP, et al. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: Achieving a more effective health sector response. J Urban Health. 2013. PMID: 24151086
  10. Calhoun C. Push and pull factors. Oxford Dictionary. Soc Sci Oxford Univ Press. 2002;
  11. Walls NE, Bell S. Correlates of engaging in survival sex among homeless youth and young adults. J Sex Res. 2011. PMID: 20799134
  12. PEARR Tool Trauma-Informed Approach to Victim Assistance in Health Care Settings. Dignity Health, in partnership with HEAL Trafficking and Pacific Survivor Center. 2019.
  13. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking: What to look for in a healthcare setting. National Human Trafficking Resource Center. The Polaris Project.
  14. Tracy EE, Konstantopoulos WMI. Human trafficking: A call for heightened awareness and advocacy by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2012. PMID: 22525917
  15. Meshkovska B, Siegel M, Stutterheim SE, Bos AER. Female sex trafficking: Conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions. J Sex Res. 2015. PMID: 25897567
  16. Zimmerman C BR. Caring for Trafficked Persons: Guidance for Health Providers. Health Providers. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. 2009.

Does the Combination of Parenteral Olanzapine with Benzodiazepines for Agitation in the ED Increase the Risk of Adverse Events?

A previous EM Pharm Pearl focused on the adverse events associated with the use of IV olanzapine for agitation. This pearl addresses concerns around using parenteral (IV or IM) olanzapine with parenteral benzodiazepines.


Olanzapine has two FDA boxed warnings, one for increased mortality when used long-term in older adults with dementia-related psychosis and another pertaining to adverse effects of extended release IM olanzapine. However, there exists a potential risk of excess sedation and respiratory depression when IM/IV olanzapine is administered with parenteral benzodiazepines for agitation. The European Medicines Agency recommends separating the administration of IM/IV olanzapine and parenteral benzodiazepines by at least 60 minutes. The FDA does not have a specific recommendation regarding separation of the 2 medications, but cautions against co-administration citing a lack of data. Currently, IM olanzapine is the only second generation antipsychotic with a precaution listed in its FDA prescribing information. This advisory is the result of 160 post-marketing adverse events, including 29 fatalities, associated with IM olanzapine [1].


When the above cases submitted to the FDA are thoroughly investigated, the problem appears to be related to polypharmacy rather than an olanzapine/benzodiazepines alone [2, 3]. This FOAMcast podcast provides an excellent summary of the data (Table 1). Additionally, the timing of fatalities after the last dose of olanzapine is prolonged in many cases (Table 2) and many of the causes of death are unattributable to olanzapine [1]. Several ED studies have used IV/IM olanzapine in combination with parenteral benzodiazepines to treat agitated patients without an increased signal of airway compromise [4-6].

Table 1: Summary of Fatalities Associated with Olanzapine (n=29)
Olanzapine AloneOlanzapine

+ Benzodiazepines


+ Benzodiazepines

+ Other Medications


Adapted from FOAMcast podcast: Olanzapine + Benzodiazepines – What is the FDA warning about? [1]



Table 2: Timing of Fatalities Following Last Olanzapine Dose (n=29)
≤ 1 hour1-12 hours12-24 hours> 24 hoursUnknown

Marder [1]


Bottom Line

Separating IV/IM olanzapine from parenteral benzodiazepines by 60 minutes is likely a safe practice, if co-administration of these medications is necessary or desired to treat agitated patients. Patients with ethanol on board are at a higher risk of adverse events [7, 8]. Monitoring should be commensurate with the patient situation and medication(s) chosen.

Want to learn more about EM Pharmacology?

Read other articles in the EM Pharm Pearls Series and find previous pearls on the PharmERToxguy site.


  1. Marder SR, Sorsaburu S, Dunayevich E, et al. Case reports of postmarketing adverse event experiences with olanzapine intramuscular treatment in patients with agitation. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(4):433-441. doi: 10.4088/JCP.08m04411gry. PMID: 20156413
  2. Williams AM. Coadministration of intramuscular olanzapine and benzodiazepines in agitated patients with mental illness. Ment Health Clin. 2018;8(5):208-213. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2018.09.208. PMID: 30206503.
  3. Khorassani F, Saad M. Intravenous olanzapine for the management of agitation: review of the literature. Ann Pharmacother. 2019;53(8):853-859. doi: 10.1177/1060028019831634. PMID: 30758221.
  4. Chan EW, Taylor DM, Knott JC, Phillips GA, Castle DJ, Kong DCM. Intravenous droperidol or olanzapine as an adjunct to midazolam for the acutely agitated patient: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;61(1):72-81. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.07.118. PMID: 22981685.
  5. Cole JB, Moore JC, Dolan BJ, et al. A prospective observational study of patients receiving intravenous and intramuscular olanzapine in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;69(3):327-336.e2. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.08.008. PMID: 27823873.
  6. Martel ML, Klein LR, Rivard RL, Cole JB. A large retrospective cohort of patients receiving intravenous olanzapine in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2016;23(1):29-35. doi: 10.1111/acem.12842. PMID: 26720055.
  7. Wilson MP, MacDonald K, Vilke GM, Feifel D. Potential complications of combining intramuscular olanzapine with benzodiazepines in emergency department patients. J Emerg Med. 2012;43(5):889-896.
    doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.04.012. PMID: 20542400
  8. Wilson MP, MacDonald K, Vilke GM, Feifel D. A comparison of the safety of olanzapine and haloperidol in combination with benzodiazepines in emergency department patients with acute agitation. J Emerg Med. 2012;43(5):790-797. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.01.024. PMID: 21601409.

Computerized Adaptive Screen for Suicidal Youth (CASSY) study

CASSY PECARN suicide screening tool

Adolescent suicide rates in the United States, partly augmented by the COVID-19 pandemic, are steadily increasing [1, 2]. A commonly used screening tool is the 4-question Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) instrument, which has a sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 92.7%, respectively, in predicting suicide-related events within 3 months. This was derived from a retrospective study of 15,003 pediatric patients (age 10-18 years) [3]. Given the morbidity and mortality associated with suicide attempts, is there a better screening tool with a higher sensitivity than 60%, while also maintaining adequate specificity? A higher sensitivity rate ensures that we have fewer misses.

The CASSY tool

In JAMA Psychiatry 2021, the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) researchers report derivation and external validation data for their suicide screening tool, called the Computerized Adaptive Screen for Suicidal Youth (CASSY) [4]. This publication was actually two studies in one: a derivation of the tool and then an external validation.


This paper assumes that the reader understands certain predictive analytics methodologies and test design concepts. Let’s briefly review some of the foundational terminology used:

  • Item response theory [Wikipedia]: “It is a theory of testing based on the relationship between individuals’ performances on a test item and the test takers’ levels of performance on an overall measure of the ability that item was designed to measure.” Of note, each item may be weighted differently based on how well it correlates with the overall outcome measure, which in this study was suicide attempt within 3 months.
  • Computerized adaptive testing [Wikipedia]: This computer testing strategy, also known as tailored testing, presents questions based on the individual’s response to a prior question.
  • Receiver operator characteristics (ROC): “The performance of a diagnostic test in the case of a binary predictor can be evaluated using the measures of sensitivity and specificity. However, in many instances, we encounter predictors that are measured on a continuous or ordinal scale. In such cases, it is desirable to assess performance of a diagnostic test over the range of possible cutpoints for the predictor variable. This is achieved by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that includes all the possible decision thresholds from a diagnostic test result.” [5] In other words, test sensitivities can be calculated for set specificities of, for instance, 70%, 80%, and 90%. Based on the purpose of the diagnostic test, the binary predictor threshold would be set accordingly.
  • Area under the curve (AUC): Calculating the AUC for the ROC is an effective means to determine a diagnostic test’s accuracy. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1 with 0.5 meaning no discrimination (i.e., the test can not diagnose patients with and without the disease based on the test). Generally, an AUC value of 0.7-0.8 is acceptable, 0.8 to 0.9 is excellent, and >0.9 is outstanding [5].

Study 1: CASSY derivation

A total of 6,536 adolescents (age 12-17 years) from 13 PECARN emergency departments were enrolled and a subset were randomly received follow-up in 3 months to assess for a suicide attempt. These patients responded to 92 questions on a computer tablet. Using a multidimensional item response theory approach, the more correlated questions (72) were used to create the CASSY tool.

Test characteristic results:

  • AUC: 0.89 (excellent)
  • Using the ROC curve, the CASSY sensitivity was 83% and 61% for the fixed specificity of 80% and 90%, respectively.

Study 2: CASSY validation

A total of 4,050 adolescents from 14 PECARN emergency departments were enrolled, and all received 3-month follow-up assessing for a suicide attempt. These patients completed the CASSY tool, as well as a subset of questions from study 1 for comparison. The frequency of questions used in the adaptive screen are itemized in the paper.

Test characteristic results:

  • AUC 0.87 (excellent)
  • Using the ROC curve and at the 80% specificity cutoff from study 1, the CASSY sensitivity was 82.4% and specificity was 72.5%.

CASSY figure ROC


Although there was strong study rigor by deriving and independently validating the tool in separate, multicenter populations, it should be noted that generalizability may be affected.

  1. The study was conducted in academic pediatric emergency departments.
  2. There was quite a few patients who were lost to follow up (27.1% in study 1, 30.5% in study 2), which may have skewed the results.
  3. Selection bias may have occurred because of patients declining to participate in the study (62% enrollment rate in study 1, 62.2% in study 2)

Bottom line

The CASSY tool accurately serves as a screening predictive tool for adolescents at risk for a suicide attempt in 3 months. Rather than having patients complete exhaustively long (and practically unfeasible) screening questions in the emergency department, this computerized adaptive tool required only a mean of 11 questions, which took a median time of 1.4 minutes (IQR 0.98-2.06 minutes) to complete.

How can you implement CASSY in your emergency department?

We asked the authors this question, and the answer is in the podcast below.


Listen more with author Dr. Jacqueline Grupp-Phelan talking with ALiEM podcast host, Dr. Dina Wallin, about this landmark paper and behind-the-scenes issues not included on the paper.

This blog post was expert peer-reviewed by Drs. King and Grupp-Phelan, who authored the paper.


  1. Hill RM, Rufino K, Kurian S, Saxena J, Saxena K, Williams L. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in a Pediatric Emergency Department Before and During COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Dec 16]. Pediatrics. 2020;e2020029280. PMID: 33328339
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Published 2020.
  3. DeVylder JE,Ryan TC, Cwik M, et al. Assessment of selective and universal screening for suicide risk in a pediatric emergency department. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914070-e1914070. PMID 31651971
  4. King CA, Brent D, Grupp-Phelan J, et al. Prospective Development and Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screen for Suicidal Youth [published online ahead of print, 2021 Feb 3]. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021; 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4576. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4576. PMID 33533908
  5. Mandrekar JN. Receiver operating characteristic curve in diagnostic test assessment. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5(9):1315-1316. doi:10.1097/JTO. 0b013e3181ec173d

Listen to all the PECARN podcasts

ALiEM AIR | Psychosocial 2020 Module

Welcome to the AIR Psychosocial Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts from the top 50 sites of the Social Media Index, the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality online content related to psychosocial emergencies. 5 blog posts within the past 12 months (as of July 2020) met our standard of online excellence and were curated and approved for residency training by the AIR Series Board. We identified 2 AIR and 3 Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 3 hours (about 30 minutes per article) of III credit for this module.

AIR Stamp of Approval and Honorable Mentions

In an effort to truly emphasize the highest quality posts, we have 2 subsets of recommended resources. The AIR stamp of approval is awarded only to posts scoring above a strict scoring cut-off of ≥30 points (out of 35 total), based on our scoring instrument. The other subset is for “Honorable Mention” posts. These posts have been flagged by and agreed upon by AIR Board members as worthwhile, accurate, unbiased, and appropriately referenced despite an average score.

Interested in taking the Psychosocial quiz for fun or asynchronous (Individualized Interactive Instruction) credit? Please go to the above link. You will need to create a free, 1-time login account.

Highlighted Quality Posts: Psychosocial Emergencies

EMCrit: The Tox and the HoundWe have a MOUD DisorderHoward Greller, MD12/23/2019AIR
RebelEMEvolution of Ketamine for Severe AgitationJeff Riddell, MD7/1/2019AIR
EMCrit: The Tox and the HoundBreastfeeding on BuprenorphineChristine Murphy, MD7/5/2019HM
EMCrit: The Tox and the HoundU(ds) and IHoward Greller, MD5/13/2019HM
EMDocsEM Cases: Pediatric Physical Abuse Recognition and ManagementAnton Helman, MD7/12/2019HM

(AIR = Approved Instructional Resource; HM = Honorable Mention)

If you have any questions or comments on the AIR series, or this AIR psychosocial module, please contact us! More in-depth information regarding the Social Media Index.

Thank you to the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) for jointly sponsoring the AIR Series! We are thrilled to partner with both on shaping the future of medical education.


AIR Series Psychobehavioral 2017

air series traumaWelcome to the Psychobehavioral Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts from the top 50 sites of the Social Media Index the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality toxicology content. Below we have listed our selection of the highest quality blog posts within the past 12 months (as of June 2017) related to psychology emergencies, curated and approved for residency training by the AIR Series Board. More specifically in this module, we identified 0 AIRs and Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 1 hour (about 30 minutes per article) of III credit for this module. As of June 2017, the AIR series is now being used by over 125 residency programs with over 1,200 residents completing at least one module in the 2016-2017 academic year.


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