Welcome to the Immunology Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts from the top 50 sites of the Social Media Index, the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality online immunology content. Below we have listed our selection of the 4 highest quality blog posts within the past 12 months (as of July 2017) related to immunology emergencies. These are curated and approved for residency training by the AIR Series Board. We have identified 0 AIRs and 4 Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 1 hour (about 15 minutes per article) of III credit for this module.
Case: A 24 year old male presents with right sided lip swelling that began several hours ago. This is the second time he has had this type of swelling. His mother has also had this before. He currently has no urticaria, dyspnea, wheezing, or stridor. What is the cause of this patient’s symptoms?
You’re a recent graduate picking up an extra shift in a small ED somewhere north of here. At 3 AM an obese 47 year-old woman presents with shortness of breath and difficulty speaking after eating a Snickers bar an hour earlier. She admits to history of HTN, peanut allergy, and a prior intubation for a similar presentation. She is becoming more obtunded in the resuscitation room as you are collecting your history. A glance at the monitor shows:
- HR 130
- BP 68/40
- O2 saturation 89% on room air
Anaphylaxis is one of the most under-appreciated and under-treated conditions in the Emergency Department. A common misperception is that you need hypotension to diagnose it. Below is a brief summary of the diagnostic criteria and ED treatment protocol. Immediate administration of IM epinephrine is critical.
A major challenge is deciding which patients can go home and which need to be admitted, because of the risk of “rebound” or a biphasic anaphylactic response. This may occur as late as 72 hours later, but typically occur within the first 24 hours. There isn’t a good answer for this.
Recently, a patient presented with angioedema after starting taking an ACE-inhibitor. There was upper lip swelling, similar appearing to the case above. He also experience a hoarse voice. Before the advent of fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy, it was assumed that there may be laryngeal edema. Fortunately, using technology, we were able to visualize a normal epiglottis and a grossly normal laryngeal anatomy.