ALiEM Cards is point-of-care reference library of narrowly focused, easily digestible cards for the practicing emergency physician or learner (formerly known as PV Cards). As of July 2017 led by the team of Dr. Jeremy Voros and Derek Sifford, we have rebranded these into “ALiEM Cards”.

Index of Topics

TopicPDFMajor SubjectMinor SubjectBlog pageDate
Abdominal pain, diagnostic studiesPDFSurgery, traumaDiagnosticsBlog2011/07/22
Abdominal trauma, blunt (likelihood ratios)PDFSurgery, traumaBayesBlog2012/04/20
Abdominal trauma, penetratingPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/07/09
ABG interpretationPDFPulmonary, critical careDiagnosticsBlog2010/04/02
Acetaminophen toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/11/04
Acute limb ischemiaPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/08/13
Acute vestibular syndrome and HINTS examPDFNeurologyBlog2011/12/02
Alcohol: Ethylene glycolPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/08
Alcohol: Isopropyl alcoholPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/22
Alcohol: MethanolPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/15
AnaphylaxisPDFAllergy, ImmunologyBlog2012/02/24
AngioedemaPDFAllergy, ImmunologyBlog2010/03/26
Ankle and Hindfoot FracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2016/06/06
Ankle fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/02/18
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillationPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/04/09
Aortic dissection (IRAD)PDFCardiovascularBlog2011/05/20
Appendicitis: ACEP clinical policyPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/06/18
Asthma NIH classificationsPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/04/29
Bayes nomogramPDFBayes2012/05/17
Bell’s Palsy: TreatmentPDFNeurologyBlog2013/02/21
Blood culture indicationsPDFInfectious diseaseBayesBlog2012/08/17
Blunt cardiac injuryPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2012/06/29
Brugada syndromePDFCardiovascularBlog2011/05/06
BurnsPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2016/04/22 update (original 7/2/2010)
C1-C2 fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/09/24
C3-C7 fracturesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/10/01
Cardiac tamponadePDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2011/07/08
Cerebrovascular injury, bluntPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/07/01
Cervical spine rulesPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2010/12/10
Cervical spine, distracting injuryPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/09/09
Charting and CodingPDFAdministrativeBlog2016/08/15
Chemical sedationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/03/25
Chest pain, low risk ACSPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/01/29
CHF likelihood ratiosPDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2012/08/24
Cholecystitis testsPDFSurgery, traumaBayesBlog2011/03/18
Clostridium difficilePDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/06/24
CNS infectionsPDFNeurologyBlog2009/12/29
Continuous end tidal CO2 monitoring in cardiac arrestPDFPulmonary, Critical CareBlog2015/10/20
Continuous infusionsPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/03/09
CroupPDFPediatricsBlog2010/08/20
CT cancer riskPDFRadiologyBlog2011/06/10
Cystitis/Pyelonephritis Women AntibioticsPDFGenitourinaryBlog2011/09/02
D-dimerPDFHematology, oncologyDiagnosticsBlog2012/07/12
Delayed sequence intubationPDFAirway, pulmonaryBlog2012/08/31
Dental infectionsPDFENTBlog2011/04/22
Dental traumaPDFENTBlog2011/04/15
Dermatomes and myotomesPDFNeurologyAnatomyBlog2010/05/28
Diabetic foot osteomyelitisPDFOrthopedicsBayesBlog2011/09/23
Diverticulitis outpatientPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/05/27
Drug Card Emergency DepartmentPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2013/09/11
DVT Diagnostic Guidelines (ACCP)PDFCardiovascularBlog2013/01/24
DysphagiaPDFENTBlog2010/02/03
Early goal directed therapy in sepsisPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2010/04/16
ECG: Early repolarization vs STEMIPDFCardiovascularBlog2013/05/16
ECG: Electrolyte imbalancePDFCardiovascular, EndocrineBlog2012/09/21
ECG: Geography of AMIPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/04/08
ECG: Lead aVRPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/11/18
ECG: Right and posterior leadsPDFCardiovascularDiagnosticBlog2011/03/11
Ectopic PregnancyPDFObstetrics/gynecologyBayesBlog2013/05/09
EMTALA rules in the transfer of ED patientsPDFAdministrativeBlog2012/09/14
Genital ulcersPDFGenitourinaryBlog2012/05/04
GRACE scorePDFCardiovascularBlog2012/04/13
Head CT before LPPDFNeurologyBlog2010/04/23
Head CT in trauma: Decision rulesPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/05/13
HyperkalemiaPDFEndocrine, metabolicBlog2010/03/12
Hypertension: First line treatmentPDFCardiovascularBlog2011/02/11
Hypothermia, accidentalPDFEnvironmentalBlog2011/02/04
Influenza treatmentPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/10/28
Intimate partner violencePDFTraumaBlog2013/07/31
Intraosseous lab interpretationPDFHematology, oncologyDiagnosticsBlog2012/01/13
IV fluid composition and Chloride-restrictive fluids in ICUPDFEndocrine, metabolicBlog2012/01/03
Kawasaki diseasePDFPediatricsBlog2012/03/23
Knee examPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/03/19
Laceration repair and suturesPDFTraumaBlog2017/03/06
Legionnaires diseasePDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/09/16
Local anesthetic toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2014/06/13
Metacarpal fracturePDFOrthopedicsBlog2013/12/13
Methotrexate and ectopic pregnancyPDFGynecology, obstetricsBlog2011/11/11
Murmurs and need for echocardiographyPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/09/17
Neutropenic fever and cancerPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/10/07
NSAID bleeding riskPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2011/07/15
One minute preceptor: NERDS mnemonicPDFEducationBlog2015/08/01
Open fractures and antibioticsPDFOrthopedicsBlog2012/01/20
Osmolal gapPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/06/01
Ottawa knee, ankle, foot rulesPDFOrthopedicsBlog2010/05/07
Overanticoagulation and supratherapeutic INRPDFHematology, oncologyBlog2012/08/10
Pain medications: Initial options in the EDPDFToxicologyBlog2015/10/23
Palliative Care Screening in the EDPDFPalliative CareBlog2015/07/27
Paracentesis and ascites assessmentPDFGastroenterologyBlog2010/06/25
PE clinical decision rulesPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/06/03
PE indications for fibrinolysisPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/07/29
Pediatric assessment trianglePDFPediatricsBlog2013/05/30
Pediatric fever (1-3 months old)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/02/02
Pediatric fever (3 mo- 3 yrs old)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/02/09
Pediatric fever (neonate)PDFInfectious diseasePediatricsBlog2012/01/27
Pediatric head trauma (PECARN)PDFSurgery, traumaPediatricsBlog2010/02/04
Pediatric ingestion dose thresholds for ED referralPDFToxicology, pharmacologyPediatricsBlog2014/07/09
Pediatric pertussis algorithmPDFPulmonary, critical carePediatricsBlog2010/10/29
Pediatric sizes and dosesPDFPediatricsBlog2010/10/23
PericarditisPDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/05
PertussisPDFPulmonary, critical careBayesBlog2010/09/03
PESI score for pulmonary embolismPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2012/11/17
Pneumonia scoresPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/02/25
Post-exposure prophylaxis, non-occupPDFInfectious diseaseBlog2011/04/01
Procedural sedationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/08/06
Rapid sequence intubationPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/07/16
Rashes, approach toPDFDermatologyBlog2011/08/26
Red eyePDFOphthalmologyBlog2010/01/22
Salicylate toxicityPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2015/06/15
Scaphoid fracturePDFOrthopedicsBlog2016/02/01
Seizure, first timePDFNeurologyBlog2011/01/13
Seizure, status epilepticusPDFNeurologyBlog2011/01/20
Septic arthritisPDFOrthopedicsBayesBlog2010/06/11
Serotonin syndromePDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2012/01/06
Sgarbossa criteria for LBBBPDFCardiovascularBayesBlog2010/11/05
Shift feedback cardPDFEducationBlog2011/12/09
Shock and RUSH protocolPDFCardiovascularBlog2009/12/22
Shock, vasopressors and inotropesPDFCardiovascularBlog2010/04/30
Shoulder examPDFOrthopedicsBlog2011/01/28
Spinal epidural abscessPDFNeurologyBlog2011/08/05
Streptococcal pharyngitisPDFENTBlog2010/07/30
Stroke scale NIHPDFNeurologyBlog2010/02/26
Stroke: Contraindications for ThrombolyticsPDFNeurologyBlog2013/05/23
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, atraumaticPDFNeurologyBlog2010/03/05
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, high riskPDFNeurologyBlog2010/12/17
Suicide risk stratificationPDFPsychiatryBlog2011/02/18
Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Aberrancy vs Ventricular Tachycardia (VT): Brugada CriteriaPDFCardiovascularBlog2013/02/27
Suture materialsPDFSurgery, traumaBlog2011/01/07
Tachycardia, approach toPDFCardiovascularBlog2011/08/19
TIMI scorePDFCardiovascularBlog2010/08/27
Toxidromes and vital signsPDFToxicology, pharmacologyBlog2010/11/19
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)PDFNeurologyBlog2010/01/05
Ultrasound: 1st Trimester Pregnancy (Transabdominal)PDFGynceology, obstetricsBlog2015/02/25
Ultrasound: 1st Trimester Pregnancy (Transvaginal)PDFGynceology, obstetricsBlog2015/03/04
Ultrasound: Abdominal AortaPDFRadiologyBlog2014/09/13
Ultrasound: Biliary ExamPDFGastroenterologyBlog2015/01/01
Ultrasound: Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)PDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/18
Ultrasound: FASTPDFRadiologyBlog2014/09/14
Ultrasound: Focused EchocardiographyPDFCardiovascularBlog2015/02/11
Ultrasound: Lung ExamPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2015/02/04
Ultrasound Measurements: Normal ValuesPDFRadiologyUltrasoundBlog2015/10/15
Ultrasound: Ocular ExamPDFOphthalmologyBlog2015/01/28
Ultrasound: Skin and Soft TissuePDFDermatologyBlog2015/01/07
Ultrasound: Testicular ExamPDFGenitourinaryBlog2015/01/21
Upper GI bleedPDFGastroenterologyBayesBlog2011/06/17
Urine toxicologyPDFToxicology, pharmacologyDiagnosticBlog2010/07/22
UTI, cystitisPDFGenitourinaryBlog2010/02/11
VBG versus ABGPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2013/01/31
Ventilator settings: Lung protectionPDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/10/14
Ventilator settings: Obstructive diseasePDFPulmonary, critical careBlog2011/10/21


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Paucis Verbis: GRACE score for ACS risk stratification

ChestPain grace risk score for ACS

Risk stratification of the undifferentiated chest pain patients in the Emergency Department continues to  plague emergency physicians. It’s partly the reason why I created a TIMI risk score card for unstable angina and non-ST elevation MI in 2010.
Have you heard of the 9-variable GRACE risk stratification score? Thanks to Jeff Bray (physician assistant in a rural critical access ED), I have now. He graciously shared his personal reference card on this with me, which I only minimally reformatted to fit my Paucis Verbis card dimensions.

GRACE stands for Global Registry for Acute Coronary Events. It supposedly outperforms the TIMI scoring slightly in accurately predicting complications in the short and long term. Instead of calculating this manually, which can be a pain, now there are calculators out there:

Anyone use this scoring system?

PV Card: GRACE Risk Score for ACS


Adapted from [1, 2]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

References

  1. Eagle K, Lim M, Dabbous O, et al. A validated prediction model for all forms of acute coronary syndrome: estimating the risk of 6-month postdischarge death in an international registry. JAMA. 2004;291(22):2727-2733. [PubMed]
  2. D’Ascenzo F, Biondi-Zoccai G, Moretti C, et al. TIMI, GRACE and alternative risk scores in Acute Coronary Syndromes: a meta-analysis of 40 derivation studies on 216,552 patients and of 42 validation studies on 31,625 patients. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012;33(3):507-514. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-10T19:05:05-07:00Apr 13, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Cardiovascular|

Paucis Verbis: Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki diseaseKawasaki Disease can be easy to diagnose when you have the pediatric patient, who presents with all 5 of the classic clinical findings. What happens when you have the prerequisite fever for ≥5 days, but only 2-3 clinical criteria?

  • What ARE the 5 classic findings?
  • When do you do waitful watching?
  • When do you perform an echo?
  • When do you treat empirically?

Check out the nice flowchart below which addresses these questions. They summarize the most recent (2004) American Heart Association’s consensus group’s recommendations.

PV Card: Kawasaki Disease (AHA 2004)


Adapted from [1]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Reference

  1. Newburger J, Takahashi M, Gerber M, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;110(17):2747-2771. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-10T19:08:53-07:00Mar 23, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Cardiovascular, Pediatrics|

Paucis Verbis: Continuous Infusions

IV drip continuous infusion

I have always been envious of the residents who carry around the Continuous Infusions cheat-sheet card, which was created by the UCSF Critical Care Units as part of a campaign for Safe Medication Prescriptions. I want one! So I finally managed to wrangle one away for a few minutes and xerox copy it. Here is the abbreviated card, after paring down the list to just ED-focused medications.

PV Card: Continuous Infusions


Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

By |2021-10-10T19:14:04-07:00Mar 9, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Tox & Medications|

Paucis Verbis: Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis Epipen in Thigh

Anaphylaxis is one of the most under-appreciated and under-treated conditions in the Emergency Department. A common misperception is that you need hypotension to diagnose it. Below is a brief summary of the diagnostic criteria and ED treatment protocol. Immediate administration of IM epinephrine is critical.

A major challenge is deciding which patients can go home and which need to be admitted, because of the risk of “rebound” or a biphasic anaphylactic response. This may occur as late as 72 hours later, but typically occur within the first 24 hours. There isn’t a good answer for this.

What’s your practice in dispositioning these patients? Personally, I admit at least those patients who present with severe hypotension, require more than 1 epinephrine dose, or have poor social support.

NOTE: Unlike the photo on the top, warn patients NOT to rest their thumb on the device because of the risk inadvertent needle puncture.

PV Card: Anaphylaxis


Adapted from [1, 2]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

References

  1. Arnold J, Williams P. Anaphylaxis: recognition and management. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(10):1111-1118. [PubMed]
  2. Simons FER. Anaphylaxis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010;125(2):S161-S181. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.12.981
By |2021-10-10T19:17:26-07:00Feb 24, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Allergy-Immunology|

Paucis Verbis: Pediatric fever without a source (3 mo-3 yr)

Thermometer Pediatric FeverIn part 3 of this “Pediatric Fever Without a Source” Paucis Verbis cards, we now cover febrile infants 3 months to 3 years old (PV cards for birth-28 days and 29 days-3 months old).

Notes:

  • The algorithm below is a guideline for NON-toxic patients. More ill-appearing children require a more broad workup.
  • For the under-immunized (<2 PCV immunizations) and temperature ≥39.5C, blood cultures may be falling out of favor in the near future, because the incidence of blood culture contaminants is close to exceeding the true incidence of occult bacteremia.

PV Card: Pediatric Fever Without a Source (3 Months-3 Years)


Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Thanks to Dr. Hemal Kanzaria (UCSF-SFGH resident) for helping design this PV card and Dr. Christine Cho, Dr. Andi Marmor, and Dr. Ellen Laves (UCSF Pediatrics) for the content.

By |2021-10-11T15:10:11-07:00Feb 10, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Pediatrics|

Paucis Verbis: Fever without a source (29 days-3 months old)

Thermometer pediatric feverIn part 2 of this “Pediatric Fever Without a Source” Paucis Verbis cards, we now cover febrile infants aged 29 days to 3 months (PV card for birth-28 days). Note that there is no single correct answer in how to manage these patients. There can be a wide variation in practices, partly because of the slightly different criteria used by the 3 studies. The overarching principle is that “high risk” infants get admitted with IV ceftriaxone and “low risk” infants get discharged with close follow-up +/- a ceftriaxone IV or IM dose. The line between these two risk categories is the grey area.

Where I practice, we tend to follow a modified version of the Rochester criteria, where a lumbar puncture and antibiotics aren’t always required for this age group (unlike the Boston criteria).

PV Card: Pediatric Fever Without a Source (29 Days-3 Months)


Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Keep a lookout for future PV cards which will address fevers without a source in pediatric patients aged 3 months-3 years old.

Thanks to Dr. Hemal Kanzaria (UCSF-SFGH resident) for helping design this PV card and Dr. Christine Cho, Dr. Andi Marmor, and Dr. Ellen Laves (UCSF Pediatrics) for the content.

By |2021-10-11T15:12:51-07:00Feb 3, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Pediatrics|

Paucis Verbis: Pediatric fever without a source (Birth-28 days)

Thermometer pediatric feverPediatric patients commonly are brought to the Emergency Department for a fever without a source. Management of these patients depends on the patient’s age. Today’s PV card focuses on the youngest age group: Birth-to-28 days.

QUESTION to everyone:

  • Do you correct your age calculation for prematurity? Premature neonates are more at risk for SBI, but I’ve seen varying practices.

PV Card: Pediatric Fever Without a Source (Birth-28 Days Old)


Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Keep a lookout for future PV cards which will address fevers without a source in pediatric patients aged 29 days-3 months and 3 months-3 years old.

Thanks to Dr. Hemal Kanzaria (UCSF-SFGH resident) for helping design this PV card and Dr. Christine Cho, Dr. Andi Marmor, and Dr. Ellen Laves (UCSF Pediatrics) for the content.

By |2021-10-11T15:15:20-07:00Jan 27, 2012|ALiEM Cards, Pediatrics|
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