There are several causes for the acutely painful scrotum. In the follow two short tutorial videos, Dr. Rahul Patwari reviews common causes, which include testicular torsion, epididymitis, orchitis, torsion of the testicular appendix, and testicular masses.
A patient may present to the ED after foley catheter placement for acute urinary retention (AUR) a few days ago and now requests catheter removal. Ideally this should be performed in the urologist’s office. However, occasionally patients cannot or do not follow up with the urologist in a timely manner and return to the ED expecting urethral catheter removal. A careful history and physical should be performed along with a consulting urologist. If the eventual decision is to remove the urethral catheter in the ED, what is important to know about a Trial of Void (TOV)?
A few months ago, American Family Physician published a nice review article on the diagnosis and management of genital ulcers. How do you remember the classic appearances of the lesions? I often quickly check references to confirm my suspicions.
I find the two following tables helpful to remember. The table of differential diagnoses is from AFP. The article also reviews the confirmatory diagnostic testing and treatment protocols. The table of the clinical characteristics for the main infectious causes is from “The Practitioner’s Handbook for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Disease”.
You diagnose a 35 years old woman with uncomplicated cystitis. She is not diabetic and not pregnant. Which antibiotics should you give? What if she had pyelonephritis?
Answer: It depends on your local antibiogram.
An urethral Foley catheter can sometimes become retained in the bladder, because of its balloon being unable to deflate. A malfunctioning inflation valve or obstructed channel along the length of the catheter is the cause.
How can you deflate the balloon so that the Foley catheter can be removed?