PV card: Bell’s Palsy Treatment

Bells PalsyBell’s Palsy is an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis.

Since the 2009 Cochrane review1 showing that antivirals added no benefit to corticosteroids in Bell’s Palsy, I stopped prescribing them. The NNT.com site has concluded the same. Looking at the literature a little more, the recommendations are a little murkier. Some groups are still advocating for antivirals for severe cases, because there may be a very small but questionably positive benefit.

  • “Because of the possibility of a modest increase in recovery, patients might be offered antivirals (in addition to steroids) (Level C). Patients offered antivirals should be counseled that a benefit from antivirals has not been established, and, if there is a benefit, it is likely that it is modest at best”2
  • UpToDate: “For the subgroup of patients with severe facial palsy at presentation, defined as House-Brackmann grade IV or higher, we suggest early combined therapy with prednisone (60 to 80 mg per day) plus valacyclovir (1000 mg three times daily) for one week rather than glucocorticoids alone (Grade 2B).”
  • “The authors conclude that although a strong recommendation for adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids to further improve the recovery of patients with severe Bell palsy is precluded by the lack of robust evidence, it should be discussed with the patient.”3
  • “Antiviral agents, when administered with corticosteroids, may be associated with additional benefit.”4

PV Card: Treatment of Bell’s Palsy


Adapted from [1, 2, 4]
Go to ALiEM (PV) Cards for more resources.

Thanks to Dr. Kristin Berona (UCSF-SFGH EM resident) for the idea and notes!

References

  1. Lockhart P, Daly F, Pitkethly M, Comerford N, Sullivan F. Antiviral treatment for Bell’s palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD001869. [PubMed]
  2. Gronseth G, Paduga R, American A. Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2012;79(22):2209-2213. [PubMed]
  3. van der, Rovers M, de R, van der. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146(3):353-357. [PubMed]
  4. de A, Al K, Guyatt G, et al. Combined corticosteroid and antiviral treatment for Bell palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302(9):985-993. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-08T09:23:49-07:00Feb 21, 2013|ALiEM Cards, Neurology|

MIA 2012: Backes D, et al. Time-dependent test characteristics of head computed tomography in patients suspected of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2012 Aug;43(8):2115-9

ich_mca_berry_aneurysmBottom Line 1

  • 100% sensitive and specific if < 6 hours from headache onset
  •  90% sensitive if after 6 hours

A noncontrast head CT can effectively rule out atraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in patients who present with acute headache within six hours after ictus. Those who present outside this time window or present atypically for SAH (ie neck pain) require further workup, including a lumbar puncture.

By |2016-11-11T18:42:23-08:00Jan 1, 2013|Neurology, Radiology|

MIA 2012: IST-3 collaborative group et al. The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke (the third international stroke trial [IST-3]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2352-63.

Screen Shot 2013-06-01 at 7.22.47 AMBottom Line 1

Giving tPA to stroke patients within 6 hrs of symptom onset does not improve mortality or independence at 6 months.  However, patients might be a little “less disabled” while they are alive. Maybe.

(more…)

By |2016-11-11T18:42:29-08:00Jan 1, 2013|Neurology|

Paucis Verbis: Acute vestibular syndrome and HINTS exam

Dizziness HINTS exam acute vestibular examWhat is your diagnostic approach to the acutely vertiginous patient?

The bottom-line question is: Is the cause peripheral or central in etiology?

In this great 2011 systematic review article in CMAJ on Acute Vestibular Syndrome (AVS), the authors review how (un)predictive elements of the history and physical exam are. By definition of AVS, symptoms must be continuous for at least 24 hours and have no focal neurologic deficits.

Frighteningly, the authors report many of the signs and symptoms (type of dizziness, hearing loss, patterns of nystagmus, Hallpike-Dix) are not as predictive as we classically are taught!

The take home point is to learn and incorporate the 3-part HINTS exam into your diagnostic approach (see bottom box on card). It is reported to be as good as a diffusion-weighted MRI for diagnosing a posterior stroke. The steps are:

  1. Do the horizontal head impulse test. (Normal = central cause)
  2. Check for directionally-alternating nystagmus movement on left and right gaze.
  3. Do the alternate cover test.

PV Card: Acute Vestibular Syndrome vs Stroke | The HINTS Exam


Adapted from [1]
Go to ALiEM Cards for more resources.

There is a helpful 10-minute video showing normal and abnormal HINT findings:

  • Head impulse testing
  • Nystagmus testing
  • Testing of skew

VIDEO LINK: http://emcrit.org/misc/posterior-stroke-video/

Thanks to Dr. Brian Resler (UCSF-SFGH EM resident) for giving me the heads up about this at Followup Conference!

Reference

  1. Tarnutzer A, Berkowitz A, Robinson K, Hsieh Y, Newman-Toker D. Does my dizzy patient have a stroke? A systematic review of bedside diagnosis in acute vestibular syndrome. CMAJ. 2011;183(9):E571-92. [PubMed]
By |2021-10-11T15:40:21-07:00Dec 2, 2011|ALiEM Cards, Neurology|

Trick of the Trade: Dix-Hallpike maneuver variation

Hallpike-dix maneuver

The Dix-Hallpike maneuver is used to help diagnose benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

  • Place the gurney’s head of the bed down flat.
  • Reposition the patient so that s/he is sitting another 12 inches or so closer towards the head of the flat gurney.
  • Rotate patient’s head 45 degrees.
  • Help the patient lie down backwards quickly.
  • The patient’s head should be hanging off of the gurney edge in about 20 degrees extension.
  • Observe for rotational nystagmus after a 5-10 second latency period, which confirms BPPV.

I find 2 things challenging in this maneuver.

  • The patient often does not like to be moved AT ALL while feeling nauseously vertiginous. This even includes trying to reposition the seated patient closer to the head of the bed. This requires them to look behind them to see what where they are going, which sets off more vertigo.
  • In some of our ED rooms and hallways, the head of the gurney bed is often abutting a wall, a portable monitor, or some equipment. It takes a little fancy shuffling to make room for the Dix-Hallpike maneuver.

Trick of the Trade: A modified Dix-Hallpike maneuver

Place blankets or a pillow under the shoulders for the Dix-Hallpike maneuver.

Hallpike-dix maneuver pillow blanket

 

The key is to maintain about 20-30 degrees of neck extension to align the posterior semicircular canals with the direction of gravity. Placing several blankets under the patients’ shoulders can accomplish this same position without having to scoot the patient close to the gurney edge. I’m sure the patient would appreciate keeping their head movement to a minimum.

By |2020-01-07T23:52:15-08:00Aug 30, 2011|ENT, Neurology, Tricks of the Trade|
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