About Sonny Tat, MD MPH

Assistant Professor
Pediatric Emergency Medicine
University of California, San Francisco

PEM Pearls: Intranasal Medications in the Pediatric ER

intranasal medications pediaticFiona is a 6 year old female who presents to your emergency department after falling onto her left hand while racing on the playground. X-ray of the left upper extremity reveals a distal radius fracture with minimal displacement and angulation. You plan to place her arm in a splint and arrange for close orthopedic follow-up. The only problem: Fiona is in a lot of pain, especially with any manipulation of her arm, and Dad is worried that she will not be able to tolerate having a splint placed. You consider reaching for an intranasal medication to help Fiona feel more comfortable and to place the splint in a quick, efficient manner.

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By |2020-07-20T16:03:22-07:00Jul 20, 2020|PEM Pearls, Tox & Medications|

PEM Pearls: Metered-Dose Inhaler versus Nebulizer

metered-dose inhaler

An 8-year-old is brought in by her parents with shortness of breath and wheezing. She’s been receiving her “rescue inhaler” at home and continues to have symptoms. You examine her and find that she has normal oxygen saturation, mild tachypnea and retractions, and diffuse wheezes. You think that she’s experiencing an acute asthma exacerbation. Given the current pandemic, and a recent report that administering nebulizer treatments to COVID-19 positive patients was correlated with transmission of COVID-19 to healthcare workers [1], what is the best way to treat the patient?

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By |2020-07-01T07:58:37-07:00Jun 24, 2020|PEM Pearls, Tox & Medications|

PEM Pearls: 5 Tips to Demystify Amoxicillin in Pediatric Infections

Amoxicillin is a penicillin derivative antibiotic against susceptible gram positive and gram negative bacteria. It has reasonable coverage for most upper respiratory infections and is used as prophylaxis for asplenia and bacterial endocarditis. This post aims to demystify amoxicillin treatment for common pediatric infections.

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PEM Pearls: Calming techniques while repairing a laceration

Most children who come into the Emergency Department present with pain or experience pain during their ED stay.1,2,3 Pain and distress during a procedure can leave a lasting impact on a child and contribute to mistrust of the medical system and compliance with future procedures.1 ,4,5 Children who use active forms of coping report less pain and distress during a procedure.3 To help with coping, when feasible, involve parents or family, nursing and a child life specialist. If the parents are willing, try to get them involved in all parts of the medical procedure.2,3 This includes positioning the patient with a parent in a secure parental-hugging hold or maintaining close physical contact throughout the procedure.6 This can easily replace immobilization of a child or the use of restraints which can cause increased fear and escalate the degree of anxiety in a child.2

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PEM Pearls: Hydrocortisone stress-dosing in adrenal insufficiency for children

Hydrocortisone stress-dosing in adrenal insufficiencyDuring your shifts in the pediatric ED, you may encounter a few patients with adrenal insufficiency or adrenal crisis. Some of the most common causes include those patients with Addison disease, pituitary hypothalamic pathology, and those patients on chronic steroids. When these patients get sick or sustain trauma, it is important to consider giving them a stress dose of hydrocortisone. Patients in adrenal insufficiency or crisis can present with dehydration, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, and severe hypotension refractory to vasopressors. 1–3

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By |2017-10-26T14:34:06-07:00May 2, 2016|Endocrine-Metabolic, Pediatrics, PEM Pearls|

PEM Pearls: Cardiac causes of pediatric chest pain

Doctor examining girlChildren with chest pain commonly present to the emergency department. Both the child and family members may think their symptoms are due to a serious illness. Among adolescents seen for their chest pain, more than 50% thought they were having a heart attack or that they had cancer.1 In reality, only 6% of pediatric chest pain has a cardiac etiology.2 Nonetheless, extensive and costly emergency department (ED) evaluations are common and there is wide practice variation.3

But prior to reassuring your patient, what can you do to reassure yourself that your patient doesn’t need a more extensive workup? What would make you suspicious for cardiac causes of pediatric chest pain?

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By |2017-10-26T14:34:30-07:00Dec 14, 2015|Cardiovascular, CME, Pediatrics, PEM Pearls|