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15 06, 2018

PEM Practice Changing Paper: Clinical Trial of Fluid Infusion Rates for Pediatric DKA

Most protocols for managing pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are based on a theoretical association between fluid resuscitation and subsequent neurological decline. Although the evidence for an association between IV fluids and cerebral edema comes from retrospective reviews, for over 20 years, it is an accepted teaching principle of pediatric DKA.

Clinical Trial of Fluid Infusion Rates for Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis, published just days ago in the New England Journal of Medicine, challenges this teaching with the first randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the relationship between IV fluids and cerebral edema. We review this publication and present a behind-the-scenes podcast interview with lead authors Dr. Nathan Kuppermann and Dr. Nicole Glaser from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). (more…)

19 03, 2018

A Can’t Miss ED Diagnosis: Euglycemic DKA

2018-03-22T16:08:10+00:00

A middle-aged man with a history of diabetes and hypertension presents with nausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath. His laboratory testing is remarkable for a leukocytosis, ketonemia, and an anion gap acidosis (pH of 7.13). The EM resident caring for this patient is surprised to find that the blood glucose is 121 mg/dL.

Which home medication is likely responsible for this presentation?

  1. Metformin
  2. Glipizide
  3. Liraglutide
  4. Canagliflozin

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3 07, 2017

PEM Pearls: Treatment of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis and the Two-Bag Method

2018-04-02T02:54:56+00:00

diabetic ketoacidosisInsulin does MANY things in the body, but the role we care about in the Emergency Department is glucose regulation. Insulin allows cells to take up glucose from the blood stream, inhibits liver glucose production, increases glycogen storage, and increases lipid production. When insulin is not present, such as in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), all of the opposite effects occur.

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2 05, 2016

PEM Pearls: Hydrocortisone stress-dosing in adrenal insufficiency for children

2017-10-26T14:34:06+00:00

Hydrocortisone stress-dosing in adrenal insufficiencyDuring your shifts in the pediatric ED, you may encounter a few patients with adrenal insufficiency or adrenal crisis. Some of the most common causes include those patients with Addison disease, pituitary hypothalamic pathology, and those patients on chronic steroids. When these patients get sick or sustain trauma, it is important to consider giving them a stress dose of hydrocortisone. Patients in adrenal insufficiency or crisis can present with dehydration, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, and severe hypotension refractory to vasopressors. 1–3

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16 07, 2015

Trick of the Trade: Lactated Ringers for Sepsis Complicated by Hyponatremia

Sodium Na canstockphoto12825701An 82-year-old female is brought into the Emergency Department by family for a several day history of progressive altered mental status. You initiate a broad workup. However, soon after initial evaluation, you are called back into the room. The patient’s vitals are as follows and concerning for septic shock and an alarming serum sodium level.

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22 04, 2015

Hyperkalemia Management: Preventing Hypoglycemia From Insulin

InsulinInsulin remains one of the cornerstones of early severe hyperkalemia management. Insulin works via a complex process to temporarily shift potassium intracellularly. Though insulin certainly lowers plasma potassium concentrations, we often underestimate the hypoglycemic potential of a 10 unit IV insulin dose in this setting. The purpose of this post is to highlight the need for proper supplemental glucose and blood glucose monitoring when treating hyperkalemia with insulin.

This is such an important medication safety issue, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) highlighted it in a February 2018 Safety Alert.

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