A time-based approach to elderly patients with altered mental status

clockIt’s 7 am on a Monday. Your first patient is an 82 year-old woman who was brought in by EMS from an assisted living facility. All EMS can tell you is that she was not acting herself. You enter her room and introduce yourself. “Hello Mrs. Jones. How are you today?” The woman startles, “Well, you see, I went to put my dog out, and then I was just walking, and couldn’t remember. So it’s all coming full circle, and then I ate a sandwich.” Just then EMS rolls in with another patient, a 75 year-old male coming from home, who was found by his wife in his recliner minimally responsive, with a GCS of 6.  He is followed by a 76 year-old female who had a fall from standing three days ago, and has been increasingly confused today, and is currently oriented only to person.

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Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) course

Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is a new online course that I am taking. It is sponsored by the NeuroCritical Care Society, which focuses on the first few hours of care to neurological emergencies. It is a collaborative effort between emergency physicians and neurointensivists, both of which author each individual module. The course is co-chaired by Scott Weingart, MD of EMCrit fame and is geared towards anyone who treats neurological emergencies (physicians, nurses, PA/NP, EMS personnel). The course utilizes technology to deliver its content by podcast, video presentation of ENLS guidelines, online reading of published guidelines and an online quiz. Completion of all modules awards the participant a certificate of certification in ENLS as well as 15 hours of CME. (more…)

2017-03-05T14:18:34-07:00

On the Horizon: Propofol for Migraines

propofol

Propofol for the treatment of migraines in the ED might be on the horizon. This will possibly be a new practice in emergency medicine, although it has been known for some time. Propofol, when given at procedural sedation doses, seems to miraculously terminate migraines refractory to usual treatment. Patients awake with minimal to no headache and may be discharged from the ED much quicker than traditional treatment with possibly less side effects. The proposed mechanism of action is described in below papers, but in short,  propofol seems to “reboot” the brain and terminate the migraine.

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2016-11-11T18:37:24-07:00

Trick of the Trade: Rapid Oral Phenytoin Loading in the ED

A 57 y/o, 75 kg male presents to the ED after a witnessed seizure. He describes a history of seizure disorder and is prescribed phenytoin, but recently ran out. A level is sent and, not surprisingly, results as < 3 mcg/mL (negative). After a complete ED workup, the decision is made to ‘load’ him with phenytoin 1 gm and discharge him with a prescription to resume phenytoin. An IV was not placed.

Can you rapidly load him orally?

PV card: Bell’s Palsy Treatment

Bells PalsyBell’s Palsy is an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis.

Since the 2009 Cochrane review1 showing that antivirals added no benefit to corticosteroids in Bell’s Palsy, I stopped prescribing them. The NNT.com site has concluded the same. Looking at the literature a little more, the recommendations are a little murkier. Some groups are still advocating for antivirals for severe cases, because there may be a very small but questionably positive benefit.

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2019-02-19T18:20:53-07:00